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Professor Sandra Wachter is an Associate Professor and Senior Research Fellow in Law and Ethics of AI, Big Data, and robotics as well as Internet Regulation at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford. 

Professor Wachter is specialising in technology-, IP-, data protection and non-discrimination law as well as European-, International-, (online) human rights,- and medical law. Her current research focuses on the legal and ethical implications of AI, Big Data, and robotics as well as profiling, inferential analytics, explainable AI, algorithmic bias, diversity, and fairness, governmental surveillance, predictive policing, and human rights online.

At the OII, Professor Sandra Wachter also coordinates the Governance of Emerging Technologies (GET) Research Programme that investigates legal, ethical, and technical aspects of AI, machine learning, and other emerging technologies.

Professor Wachter is also a Fellow at the Alan Turing Institute in London, a Fellow of the World Economic Forum’s Global Futures Council on Values, Ethics and Innovation, a Faculty Associate at The Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, an Academic Affiliate at the Bonavero Institute of Human Rights at Oxford’s Law Faculty, a Member of the European Commission’s Expert Group on Autonomous Cars, and a member of the Law Committee of the IEEE. Prior to joining the OII, Professor Wachter studied at the University of Oxford and the Law Faculty at the University of Vienna and worked at the Royal Academy of Engineering and at the Austrian Ministry of Health.

Professor Sandra Wachter serves as a policy advisor for governments, companies, and NGO’s around the world on regulatory and ethical questions concerning emerging technologies. Her work has been featured in (among others) The New York Times, Financial Times, Forbes, Harvard Business Review, The Guardian, BBC, The Telegraph, Wired, CNBC, CBC, Huffington Post, Science, Nature, New Scientist, FAZ, Die Zeit, Le Monde, HBO, Engadget, El Mundo, The Sunday Times, The Verge, Vice Magazine, Sueddeutsche Zeitung, and SRF.

In 2018 she won the ‘O2RB Excellence in Impact Award’ and in 2017 the CognitionX ‘AI superhero Award’ for her contributions in AI governance. In 2019, Professor Wachter won the Privacy Law Scholar (PLSC) Junior Scholars Award for her paper A Right to Reasonable Inferences: Re-Thinking Data Protection Law in the Age of Big Data and AI. Her current project “AI and the Right to Reasonable Algorithmic Inferences”, supported by the British Academy aims to find mechanisms that provide greater protection to the right to privacy and identity, and against algorithmic discrimination.

Professor Sandra Wachter works on the governance and ethical design of algorithms, including the development of standards to open-up the AI Blackbox and to increase accountability, transparency, and explainability. Professor Wachter also works on ethical auditing methods for AI to combat bias and discrimination and to ensure fairness and diversity with a focus on non-discrimination law. Group privacy, autonomy, and identity protection in profiling and inferential analytics are also on her research agenda.

Professor Wachter is also interested in legal and ethical aspects of robotics (e.g. surgical, domestic and social robots) and autonomous systems (e.g. autonomous and connected cars), including liability, accountability, and privacy issues as well as international policies and regulatory responses to the social and ethical consequences of automation (e.g. future of the workforce, workers’ rights).Internet policy and regulation as well as cyber-security issues are also at the heart of her research, where she addresses areas such as online surveillance and profiling, censorship, intellectual property law, and human rights online. 

Areas such as mass surveillance methods and its compatibility with the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice as well as tensions between freedom of speech and the right to privacy on social networks are of particular interest.Previous work also looked at (bio) medical law and bio ethics in areas such as interventions in the genome and genetic testing under the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine.


Apr 20, 2020

Fairness and AI

Sandra Wachter on why fairness cannot be automated

Sandra Wachter on why fairness cannot be automated



Shared Autonomy & Work

Sandra Wachter assesses the benefits and drawbacks about autonomous robots and the future of work.

Jan 20, 2022

'Every smile you fake' — an AI emotion-recognition system can assess how 'happy' China's workers are in the office

Sandra Wachter weighs in on the ethical implications of a computer tracking workers’ emotions.

Jun 15, 2021

This Company Wants to Replace Therapy With Wearable Tech

Sandra Wachter describes issues with technology that claims to help with mental health.

Jan 25, 2021


Apr 14, 2020 @ 12:00 PM

[Virtual] Why Fairness Cannot Be Automated

Video & Podcast: Bridging the Gap Between EU Non-Discrimination Law & AI