In early June 2012, Urs Gasser and John Palfrey releasedInteroperability: The Promise and Perils of Highly Interconnected Systems. The book is inspired by their 2005 study and paper—“Breaking Down Digital Barriers: When and How Information and ICT Interoperability Drives Innovation”—which examined the relationship between interoperability and innovation in the ICT environment. The book builds a theory of interoperability, and then illustrates how that theory works and why interoperability is relevant for consumers, companies, governments, and the public. In addition to writing the book, the authors developed a series of case studies that focus on lessons learned from sectors where interoperability is critical, such as transportation, currency markets, and energy. Each case study explores the roles of law, policy, technology, market forces (e.g., innovation and economic incentives), and stakeholders, and how each of these can drive or inhibit interoperability.