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The Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society's Harmful Speech Online project publishes a series of reports, case studies, and policy briefings that focus on issues of hate speech, harmful speech, and harassing speech online, incorporating perspectives from across disciplines and sectors. We welcome feedback on these publications. Comments can be sent to           

Defining Hate Speech
by Andy Sellars
This essay seeks to review various attempts to define hate speech, and highlight a series of traits that can be used to frame hate speech. The paper also explores tensions between hate speech and principles of freedom of expression and analyzes historical attempts to define the term in the United States.

Preliminary Findings on Online Hate Speech and the Law in India
by Chinmayi Arun and Nakul Nayak
This case study outlines preliminary issues noted while conducting a detailed study of hate speech laws in India and teases out some of the major concerns that arise in the context of both online and offline hate speech.

Grassroots Perspectives on Hate Speech, Race, and Inequality in Brazil and Colombia
by Niousha Roshani
This study discusses efforts and interventions select civil society organizations in Latin America have employed to counter racial stigma faced by the collective population of Afro-descendant youth, in an attempt to understand and examine signs of impact related to hate speech in Brazil and Colombia.

Understanding Harmful Speech Online: Research Note”
by Robert Faris, Amar Ashar, Urs Gasser, Daisy Joo
This paper offers reflections and observations on the state of research related to harmful speech online. The perspectives outlined here are grounded in the lessons from a year of exploratory work in the field by researchers at the Berkman Klein Center and collaborating researchers and institutions. Understanding Harmful Speech Online is part of the Berkman Klein Center’s recent Networked Policymaking Series, and serves as a guide for researchers, as well as decision makers in public, private, and civil society organizations seeking to better understand and make informed decisions on this issue.