<-- The Filter --> July 2006

July 12, 2006
[0] From the Editor
[1] Features
[2] Berkman Updates
[3] Networked: Bookmarks, Webcasts, Podcasts, Tags, and Blogposts
[4] Global Voices: Digital Dose of Global Conversations
[5] Community Links
[6] Upcoming Conferences
[7] Staying Connected
[8] Filter Facts


[0] From the Editor

Please check out this month's features -- Berkman fellow and Executive Director/Founder of the Public Radio Exchange Jake Shapiro writes about the future of public media in a participatory culture; Berkman fellow Lewis Hyde writes about Ben Franklin's views on intellectual property; and Berkman intern Catherine Finn did a quick Q&A on the future potential of mashups with Creative Commons Senior Counsel Mia Garlick, Harvard and Oxford Professor Jonathan Zittrain, and ZDNet Editor David Berlind.

If there are issues you'd like to see covered, send an email to amichel AT cyber.harvard.edu.

Amanda Michel


[1] FEATURES: a bit of what's going on and where to read more

The Future of Public Media?
-- by Jake Shapiro

As citizen journalism and user-generated content burn up the blogosphere and incite waves of entrepreneurial venture-backed energy and big media interest from Fox to the BBC, your friendly neighborhood public broadcasters are paying close attention and are starting to get their digital act together.

Over the last 10 months NPR has partnered with local stations and networks to offer hundreds of podcasts, generating over 25 million downloads to date. American Public Media/Minnesota Public Radio recently made a major investment in Gather.com - a new social network startup with a "My Space for grownups" feel.

Open Source with Christopher Lydon continues to blaze a trail as a hybrid Internet and radio presence. And local stations across the country are beginning to dip their toes into blogging and podcasting, if not yet loosening the reins on who is behind the microphone on air and online.

In a way, public media should be better suited to adapt to the social web than other broadcasters: the public service mission emphasizes open access, civic engagement, diversity of voices, education values that resonate with the citizen, and participatory media movement. The increasingly valuable role of trusted filter is already one of its signature traits. And the system structure of stations and networks and independent producers mirrors the "small pieces loosely joined" (thanks to Dave Weinberger) nature of the Internet itself.

But big questions loom:

* Can public media remain relevant in a digital world where there is no "left of the dial" and oceans of commercial, noncommercial and user-generated content intermingle?

* What's the role for local stations when producers can reach audiences anywhere anytime?

* Are we stuck with repurposing existing programming for digital distribution or can we broaden the sources and voices now that "shelf space/bandwidth" is no longer the limit?

There's been a flurry of activity this year, from the BBC's "Creative Future" to NPR's "New Realities." The Ford Foundation launched a $50M initiative to support public media, and the Berkman Center hosted "Beyond Broadcast: Reinventing Public Media in a Participatory Culture." The answers aren't all there but the trend is clear: public media is evolving into a significant digital service (just Google "evolution" and PBS comes up first), and it can continue to play an essential role as a trusted convener of conversation around news, information, arts, and culture, and help build a backbone of noncommercial media in a networked society.

* * *


* Ford Foundation initiative

* Beyond Broadcast

* NPR, the New Podcasting Ruler: Expansion Continues Into Broadband Video and a Mobile Network

* Open Source

* Gather



Ben Franklin and Intellectual Property
-- by Lewis Hyde

How did the founding generation in the United States imagine what we now call "intellectual property"? I have recently been reading about Benjamin Franklin with that question in mind.

From an early age Franklin wrote or spoke as if he himself were like a book. At age 22, around the time he established his first printing partnership in Philadelphia, he suggested that the following epitaph might adorn his grave: "The Body of B. Franklin, Printer; Like the Cover of an old Book, Its Contents torn out, And stript of its Lettering and Gilding, Lies here, Food for Worms. But the Work shall not be wholly lost: For it will, as he believ'd, appear once more, In a new & more perfect Edition, Corrected and amended By the Author."

Franklin is not just a book here, he is a book that can be revised and corrected. The conceit is repeated in his Autobiography where he begins by declaring that he'd happily live his life over again, asking only "the advantage authors have in a second edition to correct some faults of the first." His narrative eventually enumerates a half-dozen "errata" that the author wishes he could correct, failings of character that, were he allowed to reprint, he would not repeat.

Franklin doesn't present himself as exactly like a book, then, but more like a print shop, one whose movable type allows for a series of books whose content can be altered as time goes on. This image of text always open to revision fits with the eighteenth century's civic republican ideal in which individuals were urged to subordinate their own self-interest in favor of the public good. Individual or sectarian interests were imagined always to be partial and prone to error, error that might best be winnowed out by the summed wisdom of the people. Franklin's own practice embodied this ideology; he early took to presenting his ideas in a self-effacing manner, presenting them as coming from someone else or prefacing them with phrases like "it appears to me," or "if I am not mistaken."

The image of a corrigible text fits not only with republicanism but with the eighteenth-century ideal of scientific inquiry. We can see it modeled in the letter that Franklin sent to a London friend along with his first report on his experiments with electricity. The letter confesses that he was tempted to keep his thoughts private until corrected and improved, but thought better of it, "since even ... imperfect Experiments, if communicated, can usefully excite other scientists toward more exact disquisitions ... and more compleat Discoveries." The truth is more likely to emerge from a community of scientists, in which individuals participate by contributing their partial and potentially flawed results.

How does all of this relate to questions of intellectual property? A longer essay would be needed to draw out all of the implications, so here I will suggest only one. In terms of both political and scientific discourse, Franklin's sense of himself and of his writings call into question the private ownership of knowledge. Knowledge in Franklin's world is sociable and cumulative. It does not belong to private persons but to the Republic of Letters.

* * *


* The American Philosophical Society, Yale University Press, and the Packard Humanities Institute have recently made all of Franklin's papers
available as a searchable database. See: <http://www.franklinpapers.org/franklin/>

* For Lewis Hyde's essay on John Adams's sense of intellectual property, see "Frames from the Framers" at:

* Franklin was the first to publish a map of the Gulf Stream. See:



Perspectives On the Future and Potential of Mashups
-- by Catherine Finn

The word 'mashup' was recently added to the Oxford English Dictionary, signifying the official arrival of Web 2.0 into our vocabulary and lives. Mashups were originally a province of music, with the most recent compilations including albums mashing the Flaming Lips with hip hop, and "Best of Bootie 2005", a compilation of the year's best mashups. They have quickly become fast and innovative fixes to the needs of a growing Internet: instead of creating new platforms and software from scratch, people - even non-techies - can just mix and mash existing applications. Google Map has been utilized for many mashups, including one that pinpoints crimes on a map of Chicago. To see "ChicagoCrime.org", check out a list we compiled for you here: <http://h2obeta.law.harvard.edu/92910>

While mashups have proven useful and popular, it's still not clear whether they're commercially viable. Companies, such as real estate firms, use mashups to relay useful information to potential consumers but it's uncertain whether mashups have increased their profits. In addition to questions about profitability, mashups have also brought up a slew of licensing issues.

We asked some of the most prominent net thinkers about the future of mashups.

The Filter: Creative Commons advocates for reasonable, flexible copyright as a means to create and support a flourishing public domain. Given all of the possible modes of expression available on the net, how significant are mashups? How valuable are they in the scheme of creative expression?

Mia Garlick, Creative Commons General Counsel: Mashups are valuable because they allow a variety of new and different cultural forms to be created - one artist can comment on another's creativity in ways that the original creator did not anticipate or foresee. This expands the cultural enjoyment because it gives the audience more to experience and enjoy, and it can also inspire new creativity in the original artist. Enabling a culture in which people can comment on and reinterpret the works of others is a powerful form of self-expression, particularly in the current digital age. Since so much of our existence is digitally represented - from online games, to blogs, to online photo albums - it is important that we have a space in which we can readily comment on the world around us, rather than only passively receive content or are limited to only describing our own individual experience.


The Filter: Jonathan Zittrain, your latest piece ("The Generative Internet") argued that key to internet innovation is "generativity," which you see as the generative capacity for unrelated and unaccredited audiences to build and distribute code and content through the Internet to its tens of millions of attached personal computers. Do you believe mashups bring us closer or further from your vision of a healthy internet?

Jonathan Zittrain, Jack N. and Lillian R. Berkman Visiting Professor for Entrepreneurial Legal Studies at Harvard Law School and Oxford Chair of Internet Governance and Regulation: The emergence of a vibrant public Internet and powerful PC bears on many traditional forms of creative and artistic expression, since the accessibility of the PC and the Internet to coding by a variety of technically-capable groups has translated to a number of platforms for use by artistically-capable groups. For example, thanks to hypertext standards developed by researcher Tim Berners-Lee and his not-for-profit industry-funded World Wide Web Consortium, people without much technical know-how can build Web sites showcasing their creative work. Once Berners-Lees's HTML hypertext language took off, others wrote HTML processors and converters so that one did not even have to know the basics of HTML to produce it.

The malleability and accessibility of code makes this possible, and these are examples of recursive generativity. That is, the generativity of the technology makes possible a new layer of generativity for artists: technologies that non-technologists can use for artistic expression (and, as with code, collaboration) that are leveraging, adaptable, and accessible. It used to be the case that only the most technically adept could alter the fundamental structure of the Net. Mashups lower the barrier to technical entry, making it possible for non-technologists to create platforms and software that support their other creative endeavors.

Mashups aren't just creative - they happen at the technical level too. Open source projects too ambitious for a single programmer or localized group of programmers to achieve alone have been made possible by cheap networking, and indeed the free software movement has developed tools that greatly ease collaboration over a distance, such as CVS, the concurrent versions system. CVS automates many of the difficult tasks inherent in having many people work on the same body of code at the same time. Itself an open source project, CVS permits users to establish a virtual library of the code they are working on, checking out various pieces to work on and then checking them back in for others to use. Successive versions are maintained so that changes by one person that are regretted by another can be readily unmade. Thanks to the existence of the network, software to run on that network that otherwise could not easily exist can be written in groups. People with complementary talents who otherwise would not have known or met each other, much less found a way to collaborate without significant logistical friction, can be brought together to work on a project. Creativity, then, is not only enhanced for individuals, but also for groups as distinct entities, thanks to the linkage of the PC and the Net. Such well known and industry-influencing projects as the GNU/Linux operating system would quite likely not have been possible without CVS.


The Filter: David Berlind, you've spent a lot of your personal time focusing on mashups. You started Mashup Camps (<http://www.mashupcamp.com/>) and have written extensively on the issue. Why have you devoted so much time and energy to teaching young people how to put together mashups? What potential do you believe mashups have? Why are they so important?

David Berlind: For as long as I can remember, the potential for thin-client (or browser-based) computing to dethrone the desktop as we know it has fascinated me. I often wonder to what extent everybody has been hoodwinked into believing that technological evolution requires bigger, more powerful and complex operating systems, applications, and computers. To this day, we buy this stuff, spending billions of dollars, and rarely ask whose best interests it's in to constantly refresh our technology with stuff that's harder to manage and often times just as or more expensive than what we had before. Today, you can buy a decent notebook computer for less than you ever could. But when you ask that computer to run the new generation of operating systems and applications you're back on an expensive technology treadmill that, quite honestly, would be a conflict of interest for certain vendors to stop.

Within that Moore's Law-esque context of mo' betta hardware and the operating systems and applications that slurp up every last resource (processor, memory, hard drives, etc.), those systems have to offer, it's almost always existing vendors bringing us their own resource-hungrier software with a new twist, keeping us on the treadmill. There isn't a vibrant ecosystem of any sort that independent developers can freely participate in without someone looking over their shoulder. It's still a bit of a closed system and innovation -- the sort that brings about major disruption by martialing the resources of thousands of "volunteers" -- doesn't flourish as well in closed systems. Whether it's Windows, Mac, or even Linux, there's just a handful of people in charge of how those operating systems evolve which in turn amounts to a restraint on creativity.

But all that changed when mashups started showing up and Google started publishing APIs to its Internet-based services like Google Maps. APIs do a lot of heavy lifting so developers don't have to. Much the same way APIs were one of the key enablers to the vibrancy and growth of PC ecosystems (eg: Windows), APIs that allow developers to easily incorporate rich, interactive, and useful functionality like mapping into applications that require little more than a browser in order to run is inspiring a sea change. Now, not only is the Internet replacing the traditional operating system (thereby requiring far fewer local resources), no one is in control of what APIs are allowed into "the system." This open nature on both the application development side and the API side is what's drawing developers and the technology providers who serve them to the mashup ecosystem like horses to water. Naturally, every ecosystem needs its oasis. That's why we started Mashup Camp.



[2] BERKMAN UPDATES: news from in and around the Center

*** Profs. John Palfrey and Jonathan Zittrain Advocate for Consumer Solution to StopBadware ***

In their C|Net op-ed "Deploying the wisdom of crowds against badware," Profs. John Palfrey and Jonathan Zittrain advocate for consumers, not regulation, to make the Internet a more secure place. At the core of their Perspectives piece (and of Stopbadware.org, the effort they lead at the Berkman Center) is the "view that the best solution to badware is to draw upon the wisdom and behavior of the Internet community." They say: 'We believe that tens of millions of computer users, facilitated to collective action by some of the very tools found within spyware, can create a more accountable Internet."

StopBadware.org is the Berkman Center's consumer-oriented project that is working to find collaborative solutions to the badware problem.

* You can check out the CNet oped here: <http://news.com.com/Deploying+the+wisdom+of+the+crowds+against+badware/2...
And Stopbadware.org here: <http://www.stopbadware.org>

* StopBadware will release more reports this coming month, all of which will be featured in our report-release-email


*** Discussing Avatar-Based Marketing in Second Life ***

On June 23, the Harvard Business Review and the Berkman Center co-hosted a two-hour panel discussion on Berkman Island in Second Life titled "Avatar-based Marketing: What's the Future of Real-Life Companies Marketing to Second Life Avatars?" With a distinguished panel of specialists and nearly 50 participants, the meeting encouraged the exchange of experience between real and virtual marketers. Among those in attendance were Raz Schionning of American Apparel, Justin Bovington of Rivers Run Red, Jeff Paffendorf of Electric Sheep Company, Cristiano Diaz of Second Life, Tony Walsh of SecretLair.com and ClickableCulture.com, Paul Hemp of the Harvard Business Review, and Wagner James Au of New World Notes.

We have a transcript of the discussion available here: <http://cyber.harvard.edu/home/secondlife_avatarmarketingdiscussion>
New World Notes blogged about the event, which you can read here: <http://nwn.blogs.com/nwn/2006/06/avatarbased_mar.html>

Paul Hemp's Harvard Business Review article, "Avatar-Based Marketing": <http://tinyurl.com/ekgrh>


*** Search engines, Content Protection, and Creativity ***

Berkman Faculty Fellow Urs Gasser recently published several articles, all of which fall under the rubric of Berkman's Digital Media Project, a multi-disciplinary research project aimed at exploring the transition from offline/analog to online/digital media. A quick description of his work and a link to the papers is below. If you'd like to keep up with Urs's work, check out his blog here: <http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/ugasser/> If you are interested in learning about Berkman's outgoing research, join our research release email list here: <http://cyber.harvard.edu/signup>

* "Regulating Search Engines: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead" by Urs Gasser:
In his recent paper "Regulating Search Engines: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead" (published in YoLT), Urs outlines the history of technological evolution of search engines and explores legal responses to developments in search technology. The paper sketches the contours of an emerging body of law aimed at regulating search engines as the "gatekeepers" of the digitally networked environment.

* "Legal Frameworks and Technological Protection of Digital Content: Moving Forward Towards a Best Practice Model" by Urs Gasser:
This paper is an extensive comparative study on DMCA-like anti-circumvention legislation. The starting point of the paper is the fact that many countries have already enacted legislation or will soon legislate on so-called technological protection measures (TPM), providing for additional layers of protection of copyrighted online content such as music, videos, etc. Against this background, the paper identifies different legislative and regulatory approaches and discusses them in the light of previous experiences with TPM legislation in the U.S. (DMCA) and in Europe (EUCD).

* "From Shakespeare to DJ Danger Mouse: A Quick Look at Copyright and User Creativity in the Digital Age" by Urs Gasser:
Urs Gasser and Berkman-affiliate Silke Ernst's article frames the current debate on participatory culture and the future of copyright.



Links to Berkman conversations happening online

Digital Media:

[PODCAST] NPR Station Showcase with PRX: <http://podcast.prx.org/showcase/>

[BLOGPOST] Digital Rights Management in France: <http://cyber.harvard.edu/home/home?wid=10&func=viewSubmission&sid=2368>


Internet Politics, Governance, and Regulation:

[RESEARCH] "Regulating Search Engines: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead," Urs Gasser. Published in Yale's Journal of Law and Technology, 2006.

[MAPS] OpenNet Initiative releases maps of internet censorship

[AUDIO] Asia at the cutting edge? Eric Priest looks at the monetization of asia's consumer produced content


Citizen Media and the Future of Journalism:

[PODCASTS] Global Voices podcasts <http://www.globalvoicesonline.org/-/podcasts/>

[BLOGPOST AND ANNOUNCEMENT] Some details about Citizen Journalism "Un-Conference" August 7:



Internet Security, Privacy, and Generativity:

[OP-ED] "Deploying the wisdom of crowds against badware"

[TOOLS] Identity Mashup conference community hub: <http://idmashup.org/>

[BRIEF] "International Personal Data Protection and Digital Identity Management Tools," Mary Rundle.

[AUDIO] Identity Mashup conference panel conversations

[BLOGPOST] Reenvisioning Privacy and Security Online, John Palfrey



[4] Global Voices:
Digital Dose of Global Conversations

David Sasaki, Global Voices Latin America Regional Editor, put together the monthly digest below, a collection of links to the most interesting conversations happening in the global blogosphere. Please check out Global Voices at <http://www.globalvoicesonline.org>

It just gets better and better: the third Global Voices Show, an audio compilation of podcasts from around the world, takes listeners to Senegal, Israel, Brazil, and beyond. It will make you laugh, make you reflect, make you shuffle your feet, and, perhaps most importantly, will serve as a reminder as to why we must encourage citizen media to both flourish and interact across borders.

Timorese bloggers are frustrated with the way the Western media has spun the story of East Timor's current crisis as a country divided between an unpopular prime minister and a popular opposition movement. In fact, it turns out the alliances, rivalries, and influences of the international community spin a much more complex web. <http://www.globalvoicesonline.org/2006/06/27/lusosphere-blogs-report- the-latest-political-twists-in-east-timor/>

More than 140 days have passed since Chinese filmmaker and Global Voices Regional Editor Hao Wu was detained without charge by Chinese authorities. Rebecca MacKinnon, pointing to a recent front-page article in the Wall Street Journal, brings readers up to date on the effort to obtain his freedom and the toll it has taken on Hao Wu's sister. <http://www.globalvoicesonline.org/2006/07/03/china-free-hao-wu/>

Ben Paarman's tours of Central Asian cyberspace offers readers useful roundups of Armenian and Russian-speaking Kazakh blogs, a new hate crime law in Uzbekistan, recent deaths among Tajik migrant workers in Russia, and a war between rappers, Uzbek style.
<http://www.globalvoicesonline.org/2006/06/30/voices-from-central- asia-and-the-caucasus-9/>

Beyond bridging individuals of distinct nationalities, cultures, and languages, the blogosphere also serves as acenter of gravity for diaspora communities with shared origins. Farid Pouya gives us the assorted reasons why several Iranian bloggers left their home country and what the decision has meant for them. <http://www.globalvoicesonline.org/2006/06/30/immigration-exile-and- motherland/>

Ghana's World Cup football team caused no embarrassment to West African bloggers despite elimination by powerhouse Brazil. The same, however, cannot be said for the Gambian government's spending priorities or Cameroon's technology sector.

Lawyers, activists, artists, and bloggers all descended upon Rio de Janeiro last month to discuss strategies which encourage the free flow of information and culture in the digital era. The summit provided an opportune time to revisit the state of Creative Commons in Latin America and gauge its progress over the past year. <http://www.globalvoicesonline.org/2006/06/26/the-state-of-creative-commo...

*** Global Voices, a non-profit global citizens' media project, was launched from the Berkman Center by Berkman Fellows Rebecca MacKinnon and Ethan Zuckerman and is sponsored by the Berkman Center, the MacArthur Foundation, and Reuters. ***



Featuring our friends and affiliates

Creative Commons is sponsoring an 'open video' contest:

Electronic Frontier Foundation's latest animation:

The Center for Social Media's "The New Deal: How Digital Platforms Change Negotiations between Public Media and Independent Producers":

Public Knowledge is accepting nominations for the 2006 IP Awards:

The Free Expression Policy Project launches "The Fair Use Network":






* Wikimania 2006: August 4-6 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Wikimania 2006 will be the the second annual international conference of Wikimedia Foundation projects such as Wikipedia and Wikinews. Both a scientific conference and a community event, Wikimania provides an opportunity for Wikimedians and the general public alike to meet and share ideas about free and open source software, free knowledge initiatives, and wiki projects worldwide. http://wikimania2006.wikimedia.org/

* Citizen Media "UnConference": The purpose is to brainstorm some key aspects of citizen journalism, including principles, techniques, tools, business models and more. The conference will be in the “unconference” format. That is, the audience will be the experts — no formal panels, but rather excellent moderators drawing out what we collectively know — and the idea is to learn from each other. Moderators so far include (in alphabetical order): Jeff Jarvis, author of the BuzzMachine blog and head of the new-media program at the City University of New York’s new School of Journalism; Andrew Lih, former Columbia and Hong Kong University new media professor, on on what would be the ideal toolset for citizen journalism, and what’s still missing from the toolset; Lisa Williams, who runs the H2otown blog covering Watertown, Mass., on local sites and how they work best; Fred Wilson, a New York-based venture capitalist who focuses on new media, on paying the bills and making money from citizen journalism. The gathering will take place at Harvard Law School’s Pound Hall, beginning at 9 a.m. and finishing at 4 p.m. For more information, please continue to check out the Center for Citizen Media's blog: <http://citmedia.org/blog/>


CONFERENCE WATCH: July - September, 2006

* July 10-21: e/merge 2006: Learning Landscapes in Southern Africa - online,

* July 12-14: Symposium On Usable Privacy and Security - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,

* July 12-15: OhmyNews 2nd International Citizen Reporters' Forum: Citizen Journalism, Best Practices - Seoul, Korea,

* July 13-16: IADIS International Conference: e-Society 2006 - Dublin, Ireland,

* July 14-16: IADIS International Conference: Mobile Learning 2006 - Dublin, Ireland,

* July 19-21: 5th International Conference on Web-based Learning (ICWL 2006) - Penang, Malaysia,

* July 19-21: Information Seeking in Context - Sydney, Australia,

* July 20-21: WebVisions 2006 - Portland, Oregon,

* July 20-23: The 2nd International Conference on Social and Organizational Informatics and Cybernetics: SOIC '06 - Orlando, Florida,

* July 25-27: AlwaysOn 2006 Innovation Summit @ Stanford - Palo Alto, California,

* July 26-28: EVA 2006 London: Culture x Technology Across Europe & Internationally - London, United Kingdom,

* July 26-28: International e-Participation and Local Democracy Symposium (Part 1) - Budapest, Hungary,

* July 28-29: BlogHer '06 - San Jose, California,

* August 1-5: 2006 Participatory Design Conference: Expanding Boundaries in Design - Trento, Italy,

* August 2-4: National Conference on Information Management in Digital Libraries (NCIMDiL) - Kharagpur, India,

* August 3: * July 26-28: International e-Participation and Local Democracy Symposium (Part 2) - Baltimore, Maryland,

* August 2-4: Distance Learning Conference 2006 - Madison, Wisconsin,

* August 7-9: eLearning DevCon 2006 - Salt Lake City, Utah,

* August 10-11: Distance and E-Learning for the Future - Vancouver, British Columbia,

* August 19-24: Preserving Photographs in a Digital World: Balancing Traditional Preservation with Digital Access - Rochester, New York,

* August 20-24: IFLA 2006: Libraries: Dynamic Engines for the Knowledge and Information Society - Seoul, Korea,

* August 21-22: Tilting the Global Balance in the Intellectual Property Rights Landscape: The Strategic Implications of the Growth in the
Asia Pacific Region - Singapore, <http://www.globalforumip.com/>

* August 22-25: Digital Libraries a la Carte: New Choices for the Future - Tilburg University, The Netherlands,

* September 4: Curverider Conference Series: The Revolution will not be Televised: It is being Podcast - Edinburgh, Scotland,

* September 6-9: NETTIES 2006: The Future of E: Advanced Educational Technologies for a Future e-Europe - Timisoara, Romania,

* September 14-17: Bringing Text Alive: The Future of Scholarship, Pedagogy, and Electronic Publication - Ann Arbor, Michigan,

* September 17-22: European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries - Alicante, Spain,

* September 25-26: 2006 Communications Policy & Research Forum - Sydney, Australia,

* September 27-28: Moving towards open access: A JISC conference for research funders, authors, publishers and librarians - Oxford, United
Kingdom, <http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=event_oaconf_0906>

* September 28-29: IPSI Perfecting Performance: Best Practices and Lessons Learned - Montreal, Quebec, Canada,

* September 29-30: 2nd Annual Podcast & Portable Media Expo - Ontario, California,


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Last updated

January 16, 2008