An RFP is a buyer-initiated procurement protocol used by businesses, governments and other large organizations. It is, literally, what the letters stand for: a Request For Proposal. Among a suite of similar TLAs (three letter acronyms) that begin with "Request for" -- RFI (Request for Information), RFQ (Request for Quotation), RFT (Request for Tender) -- RFP is the most familiar.
RFPs, however, are about as personal as heavy construction. They're something only big organizations do. Still, individuals should be able to do the same in a networked marketplace. Toward that end, issuing a personal RFP has been a VRM goal from the start. In 2012 the personal RFP became better known as Intentcasting. The rest of what this page used to say is now over at that page.