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Actors conducted distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks against Estonian IT infrastructure beginning on 27 April 2007 following the the Estonians' relocation of the Soviet WWII memorial. The attacks were particularly effective due to Estonia’s high level of dependence on their modern IT infrastructure. Ethnic Russians make up approximately 25% of the Estonian population, and it was unable to be definitively shown if the cyberattacks came internally from ethnic-Russian Estonians, or from Russia itself.
- Wikipedia entry
- Ian Traynor, Russia Accused of Unleashing Cyberwar to Disable Estonia, Guardian, May 16, 2007.
- William C. Ashmore, Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks, Baltic Security & Defence Review, 2009
- Joshua Davis, Hackers Take Down the Most Wired Country in Europe, Wired Magazine, Aug 21, 2007