Table 9.1

From Yochai Benkler - Wealth of Networks
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Table 9.1: Map of Players and Roles in Major Relevant Sectors

Actor Sector

Government

Universities, Libraries, etc.

IP-Based Industry

Non-IP-Based Industry

NGOs/Nonprofits

Individuals

Software

Research funding, defense, procurement

Basic research and design; components "incubate" much else

Software publishing (1/3 annual revenue)

Software services, customization (~2/3 annual revenue)

FSF; Apache; W3C; IETF

Free/open-source software

Scientific publication

Research funding

University presses; salaries; promotion and tenure

Elsevier Science; professional associations

Biomed Central

PLoS; ArXiv

Working papers; Web-based self-publishing

Agricultural Biotech

Grants and government labs; NARS

Basic research; tech transfer (24% of patenting activity)

Monsanto, DuPont, Syngenta (~74% of patents)

No obvious equivalent

CAMBIA BIOS CGIAR

Farmers

Biomed/Health

Grants and government labs

Basic research; tech transfer (~50%?)

Big Pharma; Biotech (~50%?)

Generics

OneWorld Health

None