Networking terminology

From Yochai Benkler - Wealth of Networks
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To better understand the world of computer networks, it is essential for us to understand some of the more complex terminology.

Address Mask - A bit mask used to select bits from an Internet address for subnet addressing

Active Directory Service (ADS) - A service that can be used as an information service as well as administrative service.

API - Application Programming Interface

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) - The Internet protocol used to dynamically map Internet addresses to physical (hardware) addresses on LANs.

Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) - Policies and procedures used to govern the appropriate usage of a network, computer, resource, or service.

Authentication - The process by which a user's identity is checked within the network to ensure that the user has access to the requested resources or services.

Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) - Protocol that allows an Internet node to discover certain startup information, such as its IP address.

Challenge Handshake Authorization Protocol (CHAP) - A protocol used for identifying and authenticating a user and his or her password. The password used challenge response methods to identify clients.

Cookie - A piece of information sent by a Web server to a Web browser. The browser software is then expected to save the data and send it back to the server whenever the browser makes additional requests from the server.

Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) - The services that support the creation and maintenance of distributed applications.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) - A protocol used to retrieve startup information such as a subnet mask and IP address from a DHCP server.

Domain Naming System (DNS) - A system used by the Internet for translating names of host computers into addresses.

Domain - An element of the naming hierarchy on a network.

Domain Name - The unique name that identifies an Internet site or on a network.

Encryption - A type of network security in which information sent over the network is encoded so that only the intended users can access the information.

Firewall - Hardware and/or software used to protect a LAN from malicious attacks by filtering incoming or outgoing packets.

Gateway - Any hardware or software that is used for the purpose of providing access from one system to another.

Hop - Term used to describe the data link between two gateways or routers that a packet must travel to reach its destination.

Host - Term used in the Internet community to describe any device attached to the network that provides application-level service.

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) - Used to communicate IP status and error messages between hosts and routers.

Internet Protocol (IP) - The IP contains addressing information and some control information that allows packets to be routed. An IP address is the specific address assigned to a computer connected to a network. If the IP address is manually given to a network device, it is said to be static, if it is assigned through DCHP it is said to be static.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) - Serves as framework under which different NOS and application-specific directories may be incorporated and managed.

Management Information Base II (MIB-II) - A collection of objects that can be accessed via a network management protocol such as SNMP.

Microsoft Management Console (MMC) - A container utility that takes different management tools called "Snap-Ins".

Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS) - A driver, developed by Microsoft and 3Com, for LANs that support Token-Ring and Ethernet network types.

NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) - A transport protocol that supports Windows for Workgroups.

Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) - The standard interface to networks on IBM PC and compatible systems using Microsoft and IBM network software.

Open Directory Services Interface (ODSI) - A set of WOSA API's, for a single set of interfaces for building applications that access, register with, and manage multiple directory services.

OU - Organizational units

OSI - Open Systems Interconnection

Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) - A protocol used for identifying and authenticating a user and his or her password.

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) - A protocol used by a host to obtain an IP address based on the address of the host's adapter card. This protocol is typically used when IP addresses are scarce.

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) - A protocol, limited to a small number of machines attached to LANs, used to exchange Internet routing information across networks.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) - A set of standards for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of these devices include routers, hubs and switches."

Source Route - The route that a packet takes to reach its destination. The route is determined prior to the start of the transmission of the packet.

Subnet Mask - The part of the address mask that identifies an individual network within a larger network.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) - The suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the Unix operating system, TCP/IP software is now available for every major operating system.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) - A transport protocol in the Internet suite of protocols. UDP, like TCP, uses IP for deliver; however, unlike TCP, UDP provides for the exchange of datagrams without acknowledgment or guaranteed delivery.

Universal Naming Convention (UNC) - Addresses currently used in Windows NT Server networks to point to shared volumes, files, and printers.

URL - Universal Resource Locator

WINS - Windows Internet Naming Service

WOSA - Windows Open Services Architecture

So, i hope you got this information. Then we should understand the importance of network monitoring, protocols and services. It is cruicial in nowadays. Many people faced downtime of servers, script workless and protocols downs.