Difference between revisions of "Chapter 9, section 4"
m (Reverted edit of TzeZ72, changed back to last version by Ptj)
|Line 1:||Line 1:|
Revision as of 10:51, 17 August 2007
palestre presso piazza naziona roberto vecchione mirage paps wolkswagen golf v gino soccio mp3 eros con animali media center hp intel pentium 660 live in the light krawczyk borysiewicz silca spa benny benassi hit my heart ska abbigliamento - accessori e complementi foto nuova fiat panda pam video hard dvi vga pescara kiev biglietti aerei kto wie czy za rogiem eddie cochran julieta venegas andar conmigo tieta do brasil libri usati roma sesso animale it sedi inps yoshi torenaga fiat finance alien. special edition fasianidi berg nick stampanti epson 1520 muse hullabaloo isu gulistan sid meier pirates adele stevens lo faccio per te cgil scuola it toner scx-4720 www ti amo it troncatrice nastro i maledetti ponte visconteo di valeggio su k system il cartamo festa bambino latest absat mitsubishi space runner 4wd world soccer winning eleven 8 queen wembley maniglie borsa carta yo te amo pacha ibiza hotel due stelle venezia ram sodimm 256 sonia dacquino stratan eu beau estfeller barbir leadtek gps 9537 bluetooth high speed secure digital card lavabiancheria indesit custodia subacquea canon ixus i pirujas dior bike 4 passat 2004 nuovo vito mercedes benz rds camera viareggio responsabile controllo di gestione settore bancario (regione toscana) live in hyde park siberia ii soluzioni karting club 2001 software ucds lolitka olivetti pg l8l nokia 111 settore secondario slot 1 32 aziende di piscine in catania carrie otis telecamera mini wireless colore audio e-geforce 7800gtx la commedia di dio www arab it bologna berlino biglietti aerei filecabi elenco lavanderie novara carrello appendice diamonds girl best friend guiaplus com canon ef 75-300 usm home theatre s fili un rapimento quasi perfetto sddd annuncio con cellulare biotherm line peel www manastiri go ro lavoro pompei cha isreal poesia lettera d amore tiralatte chicco key polsat rose rosse per angelica pentium4 550j dipladenia route66 symbian uiq desktop replacement le parole dimenticate di gesu wanadootv com notbad homemade porn the pacifier missione tata stile nuoto farfalla sport betting toshiba t91 pentium prescot franky m c energy hotell s giorgio cesenatico testi canzoni matia bazar giochi del cazzo sony 1080i kung fu aspirapolvere lavor zeus dvd lettore portatile scott noleggio ferrari 360 modena cattura tour edition prime mosse per blue label entertainment software per dvd cancer treatment cocaine cda to mp3 convert top girl agenzie promoter citta di cosenza stampanti a3 colori testo mad about you mousse t resolution gtt 15 ml sat upload center flamenko stati di allucinazione ultima online compie un lustro hit connection 2004 amd athlon64 boxed foggia cosenza jacki chan volvo s80 diesel edoardo spadaro megane coach 1 6 strade americane deloitte merrell blu chicks il paradiso usato trattori www ceteco it richard widmark i figli della strada help falsas esperanzas il dopoguerra della 2 guerra mondiale skid row mietitrebbiatrici toshiba m40x- 128 centrino dvd walt disney hp designjet 70 motorola - v3 razor silver import d-link dsl 502t autocad 2004 ita st professional snc outtrigger find it trieste roma biglietti aerei rest riassunto vino e pane rivenditori auto kia robert mitchum meyday be2 it sei nell aria merial frontline combo ilocos norte eyes in the sky marron5 video this love auto pordenone first van karaoke files barra rs-mmc kingston 512 dual eletricista celine dion. au coeur du stade ata5 hard disk e floppy catania francoforte biglietti aerei le mondine gioia e rivoluzione caiazzo lluxor peplab www fortuna it foto ballerini akcion
Chapter 9 Justice and Development, Section 4:
Liberal Theories of Justice and the Networked Information Economy
Commons-Based Strategies for Human Welfare and Development
Information-Embedded Goods and Tools, Information, and Knowledge
* Industrial Organization of HDI-Related Information Industries *
The production of information and knowledge is very different from the production of steel or automobiles. Chapter 2 explains in some detail that information production has always included substantial reliance on nonmarket actors and on nonmarket, nonproprietary settings as core modalities of production. In software, for example, we saw that Mickey and romantic maximizer-type producers, who rely on exclusive rights directly, have accounted for a stable 36-37 percent of market-based revenues for software developers, while the remainder was focused on both supply-side and demand-side improvements in the capacity to offer software services. This number actually overstates the importance of software publishing, because it does not at all count free software development except when it is monetized by an IBM or a Red Hat, leaving tremendous value unaccounted for. A very large portion of the investments and research in any of the information production fields important to human development occur within the category that I have broadly described as "Joe Einstein." These include both those places formally designated for the pursuit of information and knowledge in themselves, like universities, and those that operate in the social sphere, but produce information and knowledge as a more or less central part of their existence-like churches or political parties. Moreover, individuals acting as social beings have played a central role in our information production and exchange system. In order to provide a more sector-specific analysis of how commons-based, as opposed to proprietary, strategies can contribute to development, I offer here a more detailed breakdown specifically of software, scientific publication, agriculture, and biomedical innovation than is provided in chapter 2. Table 9.1 presents a higher-resolution statement of the major actors in these fields, within both the market and the nonmarket sectors, from which we can then begin to analyze the path toward, and the sustainability of, more significant commons-based production of the necessities of human development.
Table 9.1: Map of Players and Roles in Major Relevant Sectors
Table 9.1 identifies the relative role of each of the types of main actors in information and knowledge production across the major sectors relevant to contemporary policy debates. It is most important to extract from this table the diversity of business models and roles not only in each industry, but also among industries. This diversity means that different types of actors can have different relative roles: nonprofits as opposed to individuals, universities as opposed to government, or nonproprietary market actors-that is, market actors whose business model is service based or otherwise does not depend on exclusive appropriation of information-as compared to nonmarket actors. The following segments look at each of these sectors more specifically, and describe the ways in which commons-based strategies are already, or could be, used to improve the access to information, knowledge, and the information-embedded goods and tools for human development. However, even a cursory look at the table shows that the current production landscape of software is particularly well suited to having a greater role for commons-based production. For example, exclusive proprietary producers account for only one-third of software-related revenues, even within the market. The remainder is covered by various services and relationships that are compatible with nonproprietary treatment of the software itself. Individuals and nonprofit associations also have played a very large role, and continue to do so, not only in free software development, but in the development of standards as well. As we look at each sector, we see that they differ in their incumbent industrial landscape, and these differences mean that each sector may be more or less amenable to commons-based strategies, and, even if in principle amenable, may present harder or easier transition problems.
Toward Adopting Commons-Based Strategies for Development
Commons-Based Research for Food and Medicines
Commons-Based Strategies for Development: Conclusion
Chapter 9: Notes