Chapter 9

From Yochai Benkler - Wealth of Networks
Jump to navigation Jump to search

eileen regina edwards screesavers gioco tavolo online telecomando tv accessori mattioli gioielli gioch i inps di brindisi kettler vario gym windows cal camisea dolce gabbana camicie il dono ps tray factory 1.94 jeans diesel 30 fax e stampante roma 1 giorno just like dath www genialloyd it omaggio floreale roma signora delle genti philips 107p50 opel diesel cristina grillo sesso anale giocattoli e bambole cronache del terzo millennio l amico e baldan bembo dario amd athlon xp processori giochi vecchi arbaud, joseph d- ariston incasso aaa di marino francesco tizianoferro morand av8-3rd eye abit midi marcia nunziale legge tognoli normativa seno suggest link jethro tull numeri privati olbia napoli biglietti aerei videogiochi gratis progettazione giardini sex jenifer lopez kodak ultra www regione ipod custodie arma candy ctd 10 yanni boys be. disco 3 atoll mantova eminem video like toy soldiers navionics gold trucchi giochi playstation opel corsa 1.4 swing sex viet nam www l ultimo samurai it a che prezzo hollywood californication tabs esame maturita 2004 seconda prova annunci foto gay furti al supermecato baite montagna tatuaggi soleluna zaini monospalla racconti erotici moglie lavatrice a 1200 alto tu no dei gemelli diversi nx6110 740 usb charger indesit wil 80 pera nikkor 24mm web sites monitoring be ther for you furgone usato mp3 creative lettori lettori mp3 creative muvo pagine bianche pasticceria domenica hard disk hitachi 80 gb cavalleria rusticana penny market vanilla nija fendi donna www musica italiana com pettinature moda il cammino delle stelle paolo conte via con me anagrammare parole guerlain issima perfect white c dvd 8x hp da 100 screensaver signore anello monitor computer lcd sony lopez, sabatino lettore scrittore card cazzotti lettori mp3 lg mantels the mission morricone annuncio coppia veneto donne in cerca di sesso satcodx impero dei franchi audi a3 padova lavoro autista catania visura catastale renault espace turbodiesel misrepresented people katie price sexy negozi pesca sportiva amore e morte nel giardino degli dei illegal baby sex notre deme de paris la suora bianca router netgear usb acrobat capture porta batterie adattatore da ps2 a usb nomi in cinese studies and development of digital signature technologies by smart card on handheld devices i-mate pda2k gps travestito mouse nero sony hc30 aggiornamenti cagliari decapitazione uomo americano seether and amy lee sadica los angeles de charly honda cbr 900 gico con mucche celeron 330j www laura engel it giochiamo san marco steptoe and son doctorate degree sexys sesso hard cazzi grossi in figa donizzetti la zingara oggettistica bacio tra paola e chiara fastweb modem sorry seems to be the hardest world blue voir un ami pleure yugioh scarica victor hugo deep spirit lonley bicicletta city auto polo anno 2002 oggetti in culo toner samsung clp-500 lcd benq fp71e dymo labelwriter 400 turbo sigma 70-200 f 2 8 brigitta kovacs veritas backup exec server samsung yh-920 20 gb agenzia matrimoniale varese elezioni organi collegiali genitori latino americanas abbigliamento al dettaglio marzotto total strider metalica google si rottenburg am neckar time gal and ninja hayate sobre el campesino offerta lavoro geometra sapphire ati x300 californi phantom planet la notte dei generali per telefonare dall italia in argentina mahjongh euro fifa cagliari londra marchio privato gioco boy sonoio santuari campani harlan county usa le cinque terre sex strip luomo della torre eiffel surdato nnammurato istruzione e ricerca pleating copertina stealth i got five on it decapitazione ostaggio usa in iraq il solitario della montagna onionbooty com bilancio fiat tmt tutti i video dei blue ammazza pinguino girls lingerie notte giorno kid muscle

John Stuart Mill, On Liberty |Table of Contents | Chapter 9: Summary
Discuss Justice and Development: Introduction


Chapter 9: Justice and Development

Introduction

How will the emergence of a substantial sector of nonmarket, commons-based production in the information economy affect questions of distribution and human well-being? The pessimistic answer is, very little. Hunger, disease, and deeply rooted racial, ethnic, or class stratification will not be solved by a more decentralized, nonproprietary information production system. Without clean water, basic literacy, moderately well-functioning governments, and universal practical adoption of the commitment to treat all human beings as fundamentally deserving of equal regard, the fancy Internet-based society will have little effect on the billions living in poverty or deprivation, either in the rich world, or, more urgently and deeply, in poor and middle-income economies. There is enough truth in this pessimistic answer to require us to tread lightly in embracing the belief that the shift to a networked information economy can indeed have meaningful effects in the domain of justice and human development.

Despite the caution required in overstating the role that the networked information economy can play in solving issues of justice, it is important to recognize that information, knowledge, and culture are core inputs into human welfare. Agricultural knowledge and biological innovation are central to food security. Medical innovation and access to its fruits are central to living a long and healthy life. Literacy and education are central to individual growth, to democratic self-governance, and to economic capabilities. Economic growth itself is critically dependent on innovation and information. For all these reasons, information policy has become a critical element of development policy and the question of how societies attain and distribute human welfare and well-being. Access to knowledge has become central to human development. The emergence of the networked information economy offers definable opportunities for improvement in the normative domain of justice, as it does for freedom, by comparison to what was achievable in the industrial information economy.

We can analyze the implications of the emergence of the networked information economy for justice or equality within two quite different frames. The first is liberal, and concerned primarily with some form of equality of opportunity. The second is social-democratic, or development oriented, and focused on universal provision of a substantial set of elements of human well-being. The availability of information from nonmarket sources and the range of opportunities to act within a nonproprietary production environment improve distribution in both these frameworks, but in different ways. Despite the differences, within both frameworks the effect crystallizes into one of access-access to opportunities for one's own action, and access to the outputs and inputs of the information economy. The industrial economy creates cost barriers and transactional-institutional barriers to both these domains. The networked information economy reduces both types of barriers, or creates alternative paths around them. It thereby equalizes, to some extent, both the opportunities to participate as an economic actor and the practical capacity to partake of the fruits of the increasingly information-based global economy.

The opportunities that the network information economy offers, however, often run counter to the central policy drive of both the United States and the European Union in the international trade and intellectual property systems. These two major powers have systematically pushed for ever-stronger proprietary protection and increasing reliance on strong patents, copyrights, and similar exclusive rights as the core information policy for growth and development. Chapter 2 explains why such a policy is suspect from a purely economic perspective concerned with optimizing innovation. A system that relies too heavily on proprietary approaches to information production is not, however, merely inefficient. It is unjust. Proprietary rights are designed to elicit signals of people's willingness and ability to pay. In the presence of extreme distribution differences like those that characterize the global economy, the market is a poor measure of comparative welfare. A system that signals what innovations are most desirable and rations access to these innovations based on ability, as well as willingness, to pay, overrepresents welfare gains of the wealthy and underrepresents welfare gains of the poor. Twenty thousand American teenagers can simply afford, and will be willing to pay, much more for acne medication than the more than a million Africans who die of malaria every year can afford to pay for a vaccine. A system that relies too heavily on proprietary models for managing information production and exchange is unjust because it is geared toward serving small welfare increases for people who can pay a lot for incremental improvements in welfare, and against providing large welfare increases for people who cannot pay for what they need.

Liberal Theories of Justice and the Networked Information Economy

Chapter 9, section 1

Commons-Based Strategies for Human Welfare and Development

Chapter 9, section 2

Information-Embedded Goods and Tools, Information, and Knowledge

Chapter 9, section 3

Industrial Organization of HDI-Related Information Industries

Chapter 9, section 4

Toward Adopting Commons-Based Strategies for Development

Chapter 9, section 5

Commons-Based Research for Food and Medicines

Chapter 9, section 6

Commons-Based Strategies for Development: Conclusion

Chapter 9, section 7

John Stuart Mill, On Liberty |Table of Contents | Chapter 9: Summary
Discuss Justice and Development: Introduction