Difference between revisions of "Chapter 9"

From Yochai Benkler - Wealth of Networks
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m
(revert)
Line 1: Line 1:
[http://chaba.info/le-borse/ le borse porta tutto] [http://chaba.info/mi-illumino/ mi illumino di immenso] [http://chaba.info/batteria-np/ batteria np] [http://davte.info/library/html/stampante-epson.htm stampante epson fx-2190] [http://ustall.org/web/barbosa-janet.htm barbosa janet peru] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/peugeot-.htm peugeot 406 hdi] [http://chaba.info/lon-chaney/ lon chaney jr] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/ram-/ ram 256 mb samsung] [http://ustall.org/web/philips-hq.htm philips hq 7740] [http://kinunia.cn/bavli-hillel.htm bavli, hillel] [http://saibso.org/pipina.htm pipina] [http://davte.info/library/html/asus-wifi.htm asus wifi] [http://helmed.info/topic/asus-pgd/ asus p5gd2] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/porno-e/ porno e animali] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/bumber-ball/ bumber ball] [http://nobinters.org/il-lancio.htm il lancio del lupo] [http://saibso.org/www-labalestra.htm www labalestra it] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/amplificatori-wifi/ amplificatori wifi] [http://davte.info/library/html/geforce-.htm geforce 6600 gt 128 mb] [http://nobinters.org/il-muro.htm il muro dei tifosi] [http://nobinters.org/nokia-.htm nokia 3650 batterie] [http://nobinters.org/foto-annucni.htm foto annucni di coppie italiane] [http://kinunia.cn/giorno-di.htm giorno di paga] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/video-hardfree/ video hardfree] [http://kinunia.cn/donnevecchie.htm donnevecchie] [http://nobinters.org/commercio-elettronico.htm commercio elettronico] [http://nobinters.org/ferrari-foto.htm ferrari foto] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/game-link.htm game link accessori advance sp console] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/barilla/ barilla] [http://saibso.org/nidi-d.htm nidi d arac] [http://kinunia.cn/you-kizaki.htm you kizaki] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/christmas-/ christmas - screensaver] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/lcd-/ lcd 20 pollici lg] [http://kinunia.cn/eva-peccati.htm eva peccati digola] [http://chaba.info/moto-coltivatore/ moto coltivatore] [http://ustall.org/web/soni-soni.htm soni soni] [http://helmed.info/topic/bellissimi/ bellissimi 2004] [http://chaba.info/prodotti-okbaby/ prodotti okbaby] [http://davte.info/library/html/della-rovere.htm della rovere] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/elena-anaya/ elena anaya] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/zemo.htm zemo] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/tivoli-two.htm tivoli two] [http://helmed.info/topic/ostaggio-italiano/ ostaggio italiano quattrocchi] [http://kinunia.cn/epson-stylus.htm epson stylus cx3200] [http://chaba.info/barbara-harris/ barbara harris] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/tv-vga/ tv vga] [http://nobinters.org/rischio-di.htm rischio di cambio e tecniche] [http://davte.info/library/html/adventure-ques.htm adventure ques] [http://davte.info/library/html/aspirina-bayer.htm aspirina bayer] [http://kinunia.cn/viaggi-natura.htm viaggi natura] [http://chaba.info/lisi-massimo/ lisi massimo] [http://ustall.org/web/foto-sexy.htm foto sexy di veronica rega] [http://ustall.org/web/what-s.htm what s my destiny] [http://helmed.info/topic/jakby-to/ jakby to bylo] [http://kinunia.cn/the-player.htm the player] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/fujifilm-it/ fujifilm it] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/xandria.htm xandria] [http://helmed.info/topic/celeron-mobile/ celeron mobile] [http://davte.info/library/html/fifa-work.htm fifa work cup] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/furgone-mercedes/ furgone mercedes] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/surround-pc.htm surround pc] [http://davte.info/library/html/pc-ddr.htm pc2-4200 ddr2 so-dimm] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/liber-feat/ liber feat marian] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/video-costantino.htm video costantino e alessandra] [http://chaba.info/chat-al/ chat al buio ha palermo] [http://kinunia.cn/saab-perugia.htm saab perugia] [http://ustall.org/web/hect.htm hect] [http://saibso.org/tatuaggi-floreali.htm tatuaggi floreali] [http://ustall.org/web/geme.htm geme] [http://kinunia.cn/resident-evil.htm resident evil per quattro giocatori su nintendo ds] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/audiokey-fm/ audiokey fm 1 gb] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/ragazzo-lecco.htm ragazzo lecco] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/maschera-di/ maschera di zorro] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/progetto-arredamento.htm progetto arredamento] [http://nobinters.org/l-odio.htm l odio colonna sonora] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/vetroceramica-nardi.htm vetroceramica nardi] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/scuola-primaria/ scuola primaria progetto la solidarieta] [http://helmed.info/topic/website-traffic/ website traffic] [http://kinunia.cn/bring-me.htm bring me o life] [http://davte.info/library/html/sexy-tape.htm sexy tape] [http://ustall.org/web/popfile.htm popfile] [http://helmed.info/topic/miss-italia/ miss italia it] [http://ustall.org/web/files-midi.htm files midi] [http://chaba.info/busalla/ busalla] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/l-uomo/ l uomo nella notte] [http://kinunia.cn/enemy-engaged.htm enemy engaged - rah-66 vs ka-52 hokum] [http://davte.info/library/html/libri-di.htm libri di sesso] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/joystick-arcade.htm joystick arcade] [http://chaba.info/evenescence-my/ evenescence my immortal] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/pentium/ pentium 4 3 40] [http://nobinters.org/ps-chip.htm ps2 chip] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/assicurazione-generali.htm assicurazione generali] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/strapon-anal/ strapon anal] [http://saibso.org/fiat-multipla.htm fiat multipla jtd] [http://chaba.info/tsto-in/ tsto in italiano where is the love] [http://nobinters.org/rice-trasmettitore.htm rice trasmettitore cobra] [http://nobinters.org/psr.htm psr 1500] [http://nobinters.org/struggle-of.htm struggle of pleasure] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/bluetooth-ipaq/ bluetooth ipaq] [http://chaba.info/il-giustiziere/ il giustiziere] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/african-art/ african art] [http://chaba.info/washington-square/ washington square] [http://helmed.info/topic/guinzagli-per/ guinzagli per cani] [http://davte.info/library/html/on-your.htm on your side pete yorn] [http://ustall.org/web/la-storia.htm la storia di serafino celentano] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/lisa-gerrard/ lisa gerrard sacrifice] [http://kinunia.cn/scuole-vibo.htm scuole vibo valentia] [http://helmed.info/topic/piedicavallo/ piedicavallo] [http://davte.info/library/html/presents-pure.htm presents pure intec] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/www-aerobica/ www aerobica it] [http://saibso.org/bmw-italia.htm bmw italia] [http://helmed.info/topic/wodafone/ wodafone] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/gold-st/ gold st] [http://ustall.org/web/supporto-per.htm supporto per tv ciatti] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/pippo-inzaghi.htm pippo inzaghi] [http://davte.info/library/html/inno-ucraino.htm inno ucraino] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/telefoni-con/ telefoni con segreteria] [http://saibso.org/diritto-di.htm diritto di recesso] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/fast-and/ fast and the fourios] [http://kinunia.cn/tribales.htm tribales] [http://chaba.info/lettori-trans/ lettori trans flash] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/opel-benzina.htm opel benzina] [http://kinunia.cn/poliziotta-sexi.htm poliziotta sexi] [http://helmed.info/topic/scarfe-francis/ scarfe, francis f.] [http://ustall.org/web/monitor-acer.htm monitor acer al1921] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/quinault-philippe/ quinault, philippe] [http://kinunia.cn/racconti-famiglia.htm racconti famiglia] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/live-to/ live to love you] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/franco-angeli/ franco angeli editore] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/hdd-gb/ hdd 40gb acer] [http://nobinters.org/universita-la.htm universita la sapienza] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/dsc-p.htm dsc -p7] [http://ustall.org/web/noi-ragazzi.htm noi ragazzi di oggi] [http://chaba.info/bandolero-stanco/ bandolero stanco] [http://saibso.org/z.htm z750] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/mezzanotte-di/ mezzanotte di fuoco] [http://helmed.info/topic/sachs-hans/ sachs, hans (letteratura)] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/moon/ moon 5] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/beheading-of/ beheading of american captive in iraq] [http://kinunia.cn/perez-prado.htm perez prado] [http://chaba.info/bolina/ bolina] [http://ustall.org/web/lavello-acciaio.htm lavello acciaio] [http://davte.info/library/html/banca-campania.htm banca campania] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/djibouti/ djibouti] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/eizo-las/ eizo l568as] [http://ustall.org/web/que-vuelva.htm que vuelva] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/joseph-haydn/ joseph haydn. die sieben letzten worte.] [http://kinunia.cn/mmc-nokia.htm mmc nokia 6630] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/home-theatre.htm home theatre dolby digital] [http://saibso.org/blero-kthehu.htm blero kthehu] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/ramadi/ ramadi] [http://saibso.org/mia-moglie.htm mia moglie con due cazzi] [http://kinunia.cn/trianon-napoli.htm trianon napoli] [http://saibso.org/concessionario-peugeot.htm concessionario peugeot] [http://helmed.info/topic/mp-vasco/ mp3 vasco rossi] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/canon-mini.htm canon mini dv] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/lo-sguardo/ lo sguardo del non amato libri] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/bluetooth-mac/ bluetooth mac] [http://nobinters.org/versace-makeup.htm versace makeup] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/rumuore/ rumuore] [http://kinunia.cn/verwandlung-die.htm verwandlung, die-] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/lg-tv/ lg tv flatron] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/nec-nd/ nec nd3540 dvd rw] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/penne/ penne] [http://helmed.info/topic/super-figa/ super figa] [http://kinunia.cn/ricorsi-autovelox.htm ricorsi autovelox] [http://chaba.info/frontpage-hosting/ frontpage hosting] [http://helmed.info/topic/san-remo/ san remo 1988 ricchi poveri] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/bali-lastminute.htm bali lastminute] [http://chaba.info/arcade-gioco/ arcade gioco pc] [http://nobinters.org/balinesi.htm balinesi] [http://helmed.info/topic/ti-porto/ ti porto in africa mango] [http://helmed.info/topic/game-boy/ game boy pokemon] [http://ustall.org/web/sotto-il.htm sotto il segno del pericolo] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/aspire/ aspire 1670] [http://davte.info/library/html/starter-kit.htm starter kit] [http://saibso.org/www-balli.htm www balli latini com] [http://kinunia.cn/formidabili-amici.htm formidabili amici...] [http://davte.info/library/html/villaggi-turistici.htm villaggi turistici sul mare] [http://davte.info/library/html/scara.htm scara] [http://nobinters.org/offerta-regali.htm offerta regali vibo valentia] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/geografia-inghilterra.htm geografia inghilterra] [http://chaba.info/gpsmap-c/ gpsmap 276c] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/te-ne/ te ne vai] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/recensione-giochi/ recensione giochi per playstation2] [http://kinunia.cn/karan-goran.htm karan goran stay with me] [http://helmed.info/topic/elastico-fitness/ elastico fitness] [http://ustall.org/web/frasi-per.htm frasi per la cresima] [http://saibso.org/copertina-pigro.htm copertina pigro pino daniele] [http://kinunia.cn/love-last.htm love last forever] [http://davte.info/library/html/kick-it.htm kick it toniee] [http://ustall.org/web/psp-.htm psp - pad] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/maxtor-ata/ maxtor ata 300] [http://kinunia.cn/batteria-cellulare.htm batteria cellulare panasonic] [http://saibso.org/traduzione-dry.htm traduzione dry your eyes degli streets] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/lampade-di/ lampade di carta pesta] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/inclusione.htm inclusione] [http://ustall.org/web/maputo.htm maputo] [http://kinunia.cn/daewoo-kog.htm daewoo kog] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/memoria-sdram/ memoria sdram 133 mhz] <table width="650">
+
<table width="650">
 
<tr valign="top">
 
<tr valign="top">
 
<td>
 
<td>

Revision as of 01:35, 18 August 2007

John Stuart Mill, On Liberty |Table of Contents | Chapter 9: Summary
Discuss Justice and Development: Introduction


Chapter 9: Justice and Development

Introduction

How will the emergence of a substantial sector of nonmarket, commons-based production in the information economy affect questions of distribution and human well-being? The pessimistic answer is, very little. Hunger, disease, and deeply rooted racial, ethnic, or class stratification will not be solved by a more decentralized, nonproprietary information production system. Without clean water, basic literacy, moderately well-functioning governments, and universal practical adoption of the commitment to treat all human beings as fundamentally deserving of equal regard, the fancy Internet-based society will have little effect on the billions living in poverty or deprivation, either in the rich world, or, more urgently and deeply, in poor and middle-income economies. There is enough truth in this pessimistic answer to require us to tread lightly in embracing the belief that the shift to a networked information economy can indeed have meaningful effects in the domain of justice and human development.

Despite the caution required in overstating the role that the networked information economy can play in solving issues of justice, it is important to recognize that information, knowledge, and culture are core inputs into human welfare. Agricultural knowledge and biological innovation are central to food security. Medical innovation and access to its fruits are central to living a long and healthy life. Literacy and education are central to individual growth, to democratic self-governance, and to economic capabilities. Economic growth itself is critically dependent on innovation and information. For all these reasons, information policy has become a critical element of development policy and the question of how societies attain and distribute human welfare and well-being. Access to knowledge has become central to human development. The emergence of the networked information economy offers definable opportunities for improvement in the normative domain of justice, as it does for freedom, by comparison to what was achievable in the industrial information economy.

We can analyze the implications of the emergence of the networked information economy for justice or equality within two quite different frames. The first is liberal, and concerned primarily with some form of equality of opportunity. The second is social-democratic, or development oriented, and focused on universal provision of a substantial set of elements of human well-being. The availability of information from nonmarket sources and the range of opportunities to act within a nonproprietary production environment improve distribution in both these frameworks, but in different ways. Despite the differences, within both frameworks the effect crystallizes into one of access-access to opportunities for one's own action, and access to the outputs and inputs of the information economy. The industrial economy creates cost barriers and transactional-institutional barriers to both these domains. The networked information economy reduces both types of barriers, or creates alternative paths around them. It thereby equalizes, to some extent, both the opportunities to participate as an economic actor and the practical capacity to partake of the fruits of the increasingly information-based global economy.

The opportunities that the network information economy offers, however, often run counter to the central policy drive of both the United States and the European Union in the international trade and intellectual property systems. These two major powers have systematically pushed for ever-stronger proprietary protection and increasing reliance on strong patents, copyrights, and similar exclusive rights as the core information policy for growth and development. Chapter 2 explains why such a policy is suspect from a purely economic perspective concerned with optimizing innovation. A system that relies too heavily on proprietary approaches to information production is not, however, merely inefficient. It is unjust. Proprietary rights are designed to elicit signals of people's willingness and ability to pay. In the presence of extreme distribution differences like those that characterize the global economy, the market is a poor measure of comparative welfare. A system that signals what innovations are most desirable and rations access to these innovations based on ability, as well as willingness, to pay, overrepresents welfare gains of the wealthy and underrepresents welfare gains of the poor. Twenty thousand American teenagers can simply afford, and will be willing to pay, much more for acne medication than the more than a million Africans who die of malaria every year can afford to pay for a vaccine. A system that relies too heavily on proprietary models for managing information production and exchange is unjust because it is geared toward serving small welfare increases for people who can pay a lot for incremental improvements in welfare, and against providing large welfare increases for people who cannot pay for what they need.

Liberal Theories of Justice and the Networked Information Economy

Chapter 9, section 1

Commons-Based Strategies for Human Welfare and Development

Chapter 9, section 2

Information-Embedded Goods and Tools, Information, and Knowledge

Chapter 9, section 3

Industrial Organization of HDI-Related Information Industries

Chapter 9, section 4

Toward Adopting Commons-Based Strategies for Development

Chapter 9, section 5

Commons-Based Research for Food and Medicines

Chapter 9, section 6

Commons-Based Strategies for Development: Conclusion

Chapter 9, section 7

John Stuart Mill, On Liberty |Table of Contents | Chapter 9: Summary
Discuss Justice and Development: Introduction