Difference between revisions of "A Perspective on Limiting Device Functionality"

From Yochai Benkler - Wealth of Networks
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m
(revert)
 
(4 intermediate revisions by 3 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
[http://ustall.org/web/pensiline-per.htm pensiline per auto] [http://chaba.info/carolina-gf/ carolina gf 4] [http://nobinters.org/fontenaysousbois.htm fontenay-sous-bois] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/soggiorno-taranto/ soggiorno taranto] [http://chaba.info/monitor-sony/ monitor sony] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/amare-con/ amare con rabbia] [http://kinunia.cn/sony-dcrhc.htm sony dcr-hc 10] [http://chaba.info/princess/ princess 2028] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/cd-r/ cd r w] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/the-littlest/ the littlest hobo] [http://kinunia.cn/io-senza.htm io senza te] [http://kinunia.cn/recorder-dvd.htm recorder dvd home theatre] [http://nobinters.org/recital-forza.htm recital forza venite] [http://nobinters.org/classifica-serie.htm classifica serie c calcio] [http://ustall.org/web/lg-pxrv.htm lg 42px4rv] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/il-canone/ il canone di pachelbel] [http://helmed.info/topic/portatile-amd/ portatile amd] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/office-access.htm office access 2003] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/supporto-lcd/ supporto lcd da parete] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/trasporti-napoli/ trasporti napoli perugia] [http://ustall.org/web/doredo-doremi.htm doredo doremi] [http://kinunia.cn/desideri.htm desideri] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/bordo-gonfiabile.htm bordo gonfiabile] [http://saibso.org/labtec-internet.htm labtec internet keyboard] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/auricolare-treo/ auricolare treo 650] [http://kinunia.cn/aree-sosta.htm aree sosta camper torino] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/usb-flash.htm usb flash disk 512] [http://saibso.org/dronk.htm dronk] [http://davte.info/library/html/quien-descubrio.htm quien descubrio america] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/delonghi-deumidificatore/ delonghi deumidificatore] [http://kinunia.cn/que-lloro.htm que lloro sinbandera] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/tracce-tema/ tracce tema maturita 2004] [http://ustall.org/web/aldo-biscardi.htm aldo biscardi] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/prestito-sesto/ prestito sesto fiorentino] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/mahra/ mahra] [http://davte.info/library/html/dirisio-calma.htm dirisio calma] [http://nobinters.org/sciacalli.htm sciacalli] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/prestito-pienza/ prestito pienza] [http://saibso.org/louvet-de.htm louvet de couvray, jean-baptiste] [http://chaba.info/messico-tour/ messico tour maya] [http://davte.info/library/html/masterizzatori-dvd.htm masterizzatori dvd per nb] [http://kinunia.cn/polysilicon.htm polysilicon] [http://chaba.info/foto-ss/ foto ss lazio] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/vild-danse/ vild danse] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/www-vidios/ www vidios legais com br] [http://kinunia.cn/guide-new.htm guide new york] [http://ustall.org/web/monaldi.htm monaldi] [http://kinunia.cn/fax-internet.htm fax internet] [http://davte.info/library/html/bootz-love.htm bootz love me more] [http://helmed.info/topic/los-goles/ los goles de ronaldo] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/fetish-piedi/ fetish piedi immagini] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/www-crociere/ www crociere m s c] [http://chaba.info/internetgirls-org/ internetgirls org] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/nikon-wce/ nikon wc-e80] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/cavo-s.htm cavo s video tv-out] [http://saibso.org/adattatore-gsm.htm adattatore gsm] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/sony-acvqp.htm sony ac-vqp10] [http://chaba.info/peter-pindar/ peter pindar] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/cock-robin/ cock robin] [http://chaba.info/cardiofrequenzimetro-a/ cardiofrequenzimetro a5 polar] [http://helmed.info/topic/chalet-vacanza/ chalet vacanza] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/il-commissario/ il commissario maigret - il pazzo di bergerac] [http://kinunia.cn/nashville.htm nashville] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/car-audio/ car audio blaupunkt] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/verona/ verona 2000] [http://kinunia.cn/nellt-furtado.htm nellt furtado] [http://davte.info/library/html/flaibano.htm flaibano] [http://saibso.org/giuletta-sacco.htm giuletta sacco] [http://chaba.info/video-hard/ video hard scandalo] [http://chaba.info/hai-voglia/ hai voglia d] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/fisz.htm fisz] [http://nobinters.org/renault-gpl.htm renault gpl] [http://nobinters.org/annuncio-lavoro.htm annuncio lavoro bologna] [http://nobinters.org/i-canon.htm i9950 canon stampanti] [http://kinunia.cn/kasam-ki.htm kasam ki kasam] [http://ustall.org/web/assicurazione-fiumicino.htm assicurazione fiumicino] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/oposiciones-aena/ oposiciones aena] [http://kinunia.cn/decoder-modulatore.htm decoder modulatore] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/corsi-formazione/ corsi formazione personale] [http://kinunia.cn/grand-hotel.htm grand hotel royal viareggio] [http://saibso.org/www-vascorossi.htm www vascorossi com] [http://nobinters.org/gigolo-s.htm gigolo s] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/black-eye/ black eye pease] [http://nobinters.org/un-caldo.htm un caldo corpo di femmina] [http://helmed.info/topic/erice-hotel/ erice hotel] [http://helmed.info/topic/chicco-alaska/ chicco alaska] [http://chaba.info/minclip-com/ minclip com] [http://helmed.info/topic/benny-benassi/ benny benassi no matter what you do free] [http://saibso.org/regione-friuli.htm regione friuli] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/geonav-c.htm geonav 4c nautica] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/azione-obbligazione/ azione obbligazione] [http://chaba.info/bratz-babyz/ bratz babyz] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/fiat-stilo/ fiat stilo selespeed] [http://davte.info/library/html/jerez-de.htm jerez de los caballeros] [http://helmed.info/topic/foto-cbs/ foto cbs principessa diana] [http://nobinters.org/orologi-casio.htm orologi casio illuminator] [http://chaba.info/king-kong/ king kong dvd] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/www-kimco/ www kimco it] [http://chaba.info/gloria-constantino/ gloria constantino foto] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/e-l/ e l era tardi] [http://saibso.org/dvd-moana.htm dvd moana pozzi] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/hit-mania/ hit mania 1995] [http://helmed.info/topic/firstservice-srl/ firstservice srl] [http://nobinters.org/office-microsoft.htm office microsoft] [http://kinunia.cn/renzo-arbore.htm renzo arbore] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/batterie-sony/ batterie sony ericsson] [http://davte.info/library/html/cirano-di.htm cirano di guccini] [http://nobinters.org/cartolina-augurio.htm cartolina augurio compleanno] [http://davte.info/library/html/sentieri-soapopera.htm sentieri soapopera] [http://chaba.info/eric-von/ eric von stroheim] [http://davte.info/library/html/tre-individui.htm tre individui tanto odio] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/macchine-da/ macchine da caffe professionali] [http://chaba.info/dj-casper/ dj casper chachaslide] [http://nobinters.org/toner-xerox.htm toner xerox 2135] [http://davte.info/library/html/la-grigliata.htm la grigliata] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/foto-clitty/ foto clitty] [http://nobinters.org/una-rockstar.htm una rockstar in cerca damore] [http://chaba.info/personaggi-settimo/ personaggi settimo cielo] [http://nobinters.org/mendelson.htm mendelson] [http://nobinters.org/dragostea-fin.htm dragostea fin tei lyrics] [http://saibso.org/nikon-.htm nikon - f 55] [http://davte.info/library/html/testo-lo.htm testo lo strano percorso 883] [http://saibso.org/niurka-fotos.htm niurka fotos] [http://nobinters.org/toner-samsung.htm toner samsung ml-2150] [http://saibso.org/vendita-cam.htm vendita cam] [http://davte.info/library/html/eccitazione-genitale.htm eccitazione genitale] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/magic-combi/ magic combi] [http://nobinters.org/warlords-battlecry.htm warlords battlecry ii] [http://ustall.org/web/napoli-kappa.htm napoli kappa] [http://ustall.org/web/mimosa-festa.htm mimosa festa donna] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/lacie-hard/ lacie hard disk usb] [http://saibso.org/in-tutti.htm in tutti i miei giorni] [http://davte.info/library/html/canzoni-napoletane.htm canzoni napoletane classiche] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/impianti-stereo/ impianti stereo] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/the-simps/ the simps university] [http://helmed.info/topic/jam-spoon/ jam spoon set me fre] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/acer-c.htm acer c300] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/allenamento-per.htm allenamento per la mtb] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/stampante-hp/ stampante hp 6840] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/nikon-/ nikon 70-300 g] [http://ustall.org/web/kt-tunstall.htm kt tunstall eye telescope] [http://saibso.org/acer-mp.htm acer mp3 512mb] [http://nobinters.org/r-mb.htm r9250 128mb pci ddr dvi tvo 64bit] [http://helmed.info/topic/warp-brothers/ warp brothers] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/grande-sophie.htm grande sophie] [http://ustall.org/web/netgear-wgr.htm netgear wgr614 802 11g wireless router] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/art-carney/ art carney] [http://chaba.info/gioco-di/ gioco di macchine da corsa] [http://helmed.info/topic/pristina/ pristina] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/musica-y/ musica y videos musicales de yandel] [http://davte.info/library/html/frisinga.htm frisinga] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/one-piece.htm one piece ps2 videogiochi] [http://helmed.info/topic/il-cuore/ il cuore e un zingaro] [http://ustall.org/web/x-ray.htm x ray murder boom boom] [http://nobinters.org/get-here.htm get here] [http://ustall.org/web/la-festa.htm la festa dei folli] [http://saibso.org/girlsaloud-sound.htm girlsaloud sound of the underground] [http://chaba.info/occhiali-ray/ occhiali ray ban donna] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/www-googl/ www googl com] [http://helmed.info/topic/santa-clara/ santa clara (u.s.a.)] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/joe-lansdale/ joe lansdale] [http://helmed.info/topic/saoke/ saoke] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/hej/ hej] [http://ustall.org/web/nissan-micra.htm nissan micra c c] [http://davte.info/library/html/immagine-mare.htm immagine mare] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/lop/ lop] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/sony-npfp/ sony np-fp90] [http://ustall.org/web/tastiera-retro.htm tastiera retro illuminata] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/michel-bouble/ michel bouble] [http://nobinters.org/rulli-per.htm rulli per bicicletta] [http://saibso.org/dvx-s.htm dvx s120 yamaha] [http://saibso.org/linea-porno.htm linea porno gay] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/www-i/ www i love messenger it] [http://davte.info/library/html/fort-bliss.htm fort bliss] [http://saibso.org/filato.htm filato] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/torrie.htm torrie] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/macchina-a/ macchina a vapore] [http://saibso.org/rian-air.htm rian air] [http://helmed.info/topic/siemens-gigaset/ siemens gigaset sl] [http://chaba.info/barabani-paolo/ barabani paolo] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/pesca-da/ pesca da riva] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/ingrossamento-pene/ ingrossamento pene] [http://kinunia.cn/athlon-xp.htm athlon xp 64 3200] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/scanner-fujitsu/ scanner fujitsu a3] [http://nobinters.org/la-strada.htm la strada giusta] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/mollificio-cappeller/ mollificio cappeller] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/gladiatore-rmx.htm gladiatore rmx] [http://helmed.info/topic/teac-hd/ teac hd esterno usb] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/kaho/ kaho] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/counter-attak/ counter attak] [http://chaba.info/francesi/ francesi] [http://kinunia.cn/boneym.htm boneym] [http://davte.info/library/html/imac.htm imac 20] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/di-luca.htm di luca brothers spa] [http://ustall.org/web/tim-curry.htm tim curry] [http://helmed.info/topic/street-of/ street of simcity] [http://kinunia.cn/www-banca.htm www banca lombarda] [http://kinunia.cn/www-pesca.htm www pesca in it] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/a-tutto/ a tutto bergman] [http://nobinters.org/stylus-photo.htm stylus photo r200] In Chapter 11, Benkler premises his “Device” section on the idea that “[u]biquitous access to such basic machines…is a precondition to the improvements in freedom and justice that we can see emerging in the digital environment” and “[i]t is [that access] to basic, general-purpose computers, as opposed to glorified televisions or telephone handsets, that lies at the very heart of the networked information economy.”
+
In Chapter 11, Benkler premises his “Device” section on the idea that “[u]biquitous access to such basic machines…is a precondition to the improvements in freedom and justice that we can see emerging in the digital environment” and “[i]t is [that access] to basic, general-purpose computers, as opposed to glorified televisions or telephone handsets, that lies at the very heart of the networked information economy.”
  
 
Benkler emphasizes the value of “general purpose” devices with “open architectures” because those devices best enable users to continuously explore, experiment, and access things outside the limited sphere of a specialized machine and allow customization without permission or restrictions from the manufacturer.   
 
Benkler emphasizes the value of “general purpose” devices with “open architectures” because those devices best enable users to continuously explore, experiment, and access things outside the limited sphere of a specialized machine and allow customization without permission or restrictions from the manufacturer.   

Latest revision as of 13:03, 19 August 2007

In Chapter 11, Benkler premises his “Device” section on the idea that “[u]biquitous access to such basic machines…is a precondition to the improvements in freedom and justice that we can see emerging in the digital environment” and “[i]t is [that access] to basic, general-purpose computers, as opposed to glorified televisions or telephone handsets, that lies at the very heart of the networked information economy.”

Benkler emphasizes the value of “general purpose” devices with “open architectures” because those devices best enable users to continuously explore, experiment, and access things outside the limited sphere of a specialized machine and allow customization without permission or restrictions from the manufacturer.

Benkler appears to get it right with regard to restrictive physical device regulations like the Fritz chip because those regulations remove computing flexibility from a device that already has it and much value is lost without that flexibility. It seems, however, that a line needs to drawn between that kind of device and (1) other limited devices and (2) devices operating on a proprietary platform.

When researching the Wireless Philadelphia initiative, the members of the Harvard Law School Internet Law and Politics semniar concluded that most of the people who do not have internet access also do not have computers – so the “digital divide” seemed to represent that first hurdle of obtaining a computer. Limited devices have a value in this regard because of their potential to bridge the digital divide.

Essentially, machines with limited functionality are likely cheaper and easier to use due to their limited purpose and therefore more likely to saturate the entire market. If someone prefers or can afford a machine that only sends emails, a general purpose computer hardly seems necessary. (While mobile devices with email functionality such as Blackberrys are becoming increasingly prominent, one should note that certain early email-only appliances that were introduced on the market never really took off.) And in actuality, much of the democratizing effect of the Internet is achievable through only a web browser and the trend over the past few years has been to web-enable everything – from email to instant messaging to customized information portals.

Perhaps MIT’s “one laptop per child” initiative best exemplifies the low-cost, limited functionality approach: the machines lack significant storage capacity, computing power, battery life and software. The result, of course, is a computer that can be produced for just over $100. The distribution of that inexpensive laptop results in gains from widespread dissemination of existing uses of the Internet at the expense of true “experimentation” that a fully functional computer provides.

The second consideration that Benkler neglects is that specialized machines may be better at their particular task than a general purpose computer because of advantages in user interface and technology. Machines that “structure their users’ capabilities according to design requirements set by their producers and distributors” are actually designed primarily to satisfy customer demand. People who play networked video games may actually prefer the networked XBox to their networked computer. The XBox bundles together all components necessary for video games, and none that the user does not need. The proprietary platform and network used by an XBox may be necessary for the device to function as it does or for Microsoft to be willing to create the device. In the future there is every reason to think that digital movie viewers may prefer the functionality of movie download to be embedded within their home theater than using a general purpose computer to do the same. And a proprietary platform may necessary for that functionality.

The user interface and technological advantages in specialized devices and proprietary platforms could easily extend to even more interactive purposes and it is possible that users would prefer them either for cost or usability. Blackberry handheld devices are an example of an emerging technology that provides such a service. The “glorified television” experiment of WebTV may have failed for any number of reasons, including poor timing, marketing, and its particular design, but it is shortsighted to give up on the idea of a light-footprint, low-cost device that enables Internet access using technology that already exists in most homes. Linking common devices, like a video game system or a television, to the Internet seems like the most reasonable way to ease the transition into a networked society and that in and of itself creates some value.

Thus, there is little question that devices with limited functionality or specialized proprietary platforms do come some cost of creativity and experimentation – these devices may not be able to create the Diana Ross and Lionel Ritchie “Endless Love” parody that has spread on the Internet or serve as a node in a peer to peer network. Regulatory restrictions on devices certainly act as an obstacle to the networked information economy, as Benkler describes. But there are benefits to specialized and limited functionality machines, whether they develop in response to regulatory restrictions or independently of them.