Difference between revisions of "9. Justice and Development"

From Yochai Benkler - Wealth of Networks
Jump to navigation Jump to search
(revert)
m
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Table Of Contents]]
+
[http://edmei.125mb.com/html/calcio-vero.htm calcio vero] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/comprare-dvd.htm comprare dvd] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/zeljko-samardzic.htm zeljko samardzic ljubavnik] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/selezione-grande/ selezione grande fratello] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/patr/ patr] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/colonna-sonora/ colonna sonora del film i cento passi] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/scritti-sul/ scritti sul pensiero politico] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/radeon/ radeon 9550] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/il-mondo/ il mondo di alex] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/philips-/ philips - sa178] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/foolproof.htm foolproof] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/www-realmadrid.htm www realmadrid com] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/prada-sprf/ prada spr53f] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/dvd-autoradio.htm dvd autoradio sistemi multimediali] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/www-loskumbiakings.htm www loskumbiakings com] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/fat-boy/ fat boy slim] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/gadget-salute/ gadget salute bellezza] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/funzionalismo/ funzionalismo] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/la-tombola/ la tombola] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/long-range.htm long range cordless] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/termometro-wireless.htm termometro wireless] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/nardi-fea/ nardi fea] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/casa.htm casa] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/bubble-bobble/ bubble bobble 2] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/locandine-film.htm locandine film dvd gratis] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/blu.htm blu,] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/cellulari-promozione/ cellulari promozione] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/leslie-sobri.htm leslie sobri and amine] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/pensini/ pensini] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/plazmatek/ plazmatek] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/cromalatina/ cromalatina] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/cover-micheal.htm cover micheal buble] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/spartiti-sister/ spartiti sister ac] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/manifestazione-scolastica.htm manifestazione scolastica] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/innamoratevi-come/ innamoratevi come me] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/rapper-nelly/ rapper nelly] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/stagioni-di.htm stagioni di francesco guccini] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/alona/ alona] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/cheap-hosting/ cheap hosting] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/fiorellino-senza.htm fiorellino senza meta] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/marco-masini.htm marco masini principessa] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/carleton-william.htm carleton, william] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/compleaano-winnie.htm compleaano winnie the pooh] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/tien-an.htm tien an men] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/vlzs-sharp.htm vl-z100s sharp] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/voyeur-blog/ voyeur blog] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/videocamera-vhs/ videocamera vhs] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/sintoamplificatori.htm sintoamplificatori 7 1] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/rollon/ rollon] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/webcam-dagli.htm webcam dagli alberghi] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/melody-of/ melody of life] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/sciopero.htm sciopero] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/la-costanza/ la costanza della ragione] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/gameboy-wireless/ gameboy wireless] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/mont-blanc.htm mont blanc orologio] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/missa-en.htm missa en fa mayor] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/mrsnoozleberg.htm mr.snoozleberg] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/mazda-torino/ mazda torino] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/km-ypsilon/ km0 ypsilon] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/www-.htm www 2 pac com] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/etichette-adesive.htm etichette adesive laser] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/lcd-tv/ lcd tv alta definizione w-xga] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/stampante-hp/ stampante hp laserjet 1300] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/tranny-sex.htm tranny sex] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/e/ e111] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/pocket-pc.htm pocket pc h6340] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/vp-d/ vp d352] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/you-ve/ you ve got a friend in me] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/ebay-co/ ebay co uk] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/la-lineup/ la line-up di federal video] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/www-baci.htm www baci abbracci com] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/operazione-siegfried.htm operazione siegfried] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/paradiso-notturno.htm paradiso notturno] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/valutazione-camper.htm valutazione camper usati] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/pagine-erotiche.htm pagine erotiche] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/lettori-mp/ lettori mp3 stick] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/ottolina/ ottolina] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/crism/ crism] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/hub-usb.htm hub usb alimentatore] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/dj-playero.htm dj playero] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/haute-normandie/ haute normandie] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/mercedes/ mercedes 2000] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/project-gotham/ project gotham racing 2] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/roma-cartina/ roma cartina] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/paciotti-us/ paciotti 4us uomo] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/francesca-e.htm francesca e nunziata] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/auto-usata.htm auto usata lombardia] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/mp-/ mp3 1 gb radio fm] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/giochi-erotici/ giochi erotici di super eva] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/hanghai/ hanghai] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/comune-avezzano.htm comune avezzano] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/musica-gratis/ musica gratis da scaricare] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/playstation/ playstation 2] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/www-yaooh/ www yaooh com] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/siracusa-albergo/ siracusa albergo] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/ad-ogni/ ad ogni costo] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/w-w/ w w w erosramazzotti com] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/lettore-dvd.htm lettore dvd autoradio] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/lg-hd.htm lg hd ready] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/amstrad-lettore/ amstrad lettore dvd divx 3010] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/www-bizzarre/ www bizzarre it] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/donne-di/ donne di 50 anni] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/grande-fratelo.htm grande fratelo 5] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/brittany-spears.htm brittany spears nude] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/jaime-pressley.htm jaime pressley] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/triband-cellulari.htm triband cellulari lg] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/hpi-nitro/ hpi nitro mt2] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/la-bottega.htm la bottega di filosofia] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/lady-oscar.htm lady oscar - volume 1] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/nike-oro.htm nike oro air max silver] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/l-imbroglione.htm l imbroglione] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/impiegato-ufficio/ impiegato ufficio acquisti (regione veneto - treviso provincia)] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/paparazzi/ paparazzi 2004] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/acer-wsmi/ acer 1804wsmi] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/elisa-di.htm elisa di] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/componenti/ componenti] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/natasha-klaus/ natasha klaus y michel brown] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/autonoleggio-venezia/ autonoleggio venezia] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/ragazzi-perduti/ ragazzi perduti] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/hoobastank-mp.htm hoobastank mp3] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/cavo-rca/ cavo rca 20 mt] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/frigo-whirlpool.htm frigo whirlpool 4170] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/psp-giapponese.htm psp giapponese] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/sex-arabe.htm sex arabe] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/woofer-attivo/ woofer attivo per auto] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/il-mio/ il mio caro john] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/conto-correnti/ conto correnti impresa] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/koblenz/ koblenz] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/volvo-super/ volvo super polar 240] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/ram-ddr/ ram ddr 256mb 266mhz] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/digitale-terrestre/ digitale terrestre smart] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/prestito-strasbourg/ prestito strasbourg] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/cori-alpini/ cori alpini gratis] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/grande-display/ grande display cordless] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/mmc-nokia/ mmc nokia] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/dragon-buble/ dragon buble] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/gianni-barbara/ gianni barbara] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/cx-foto/ cx-7525 foto kodak fotocamere digitali] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/deta/ deta] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/estratto-di.htm estratto di mirtillo] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/chitarra-classica/ chitarra classica elettrificata] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/frankie-morello/ frankie morello] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/fionnula-flanagan/ fionnula flanagan] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/ibm-mouse/ ibm mouse wheel optical] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/mille-lire/ mille lire] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/hp-stampanti/ hp stampanti 110 plus] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/ati-xgto.htm ati x800gto ultimate] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/one-day/ one day i ll fly away] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/passalibro/ passalibro] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/gps-bluetooth.htm gps bluetooth kirrio] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/ingegnere/ ingegnere] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/impiegata-commerciale.htm impiegata commerciale (regione lombardia - cremona provincia)] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/philips-pt/ philips 29pt8520] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/briana-bancks/ briana bancks] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/daidegas/ daidegas] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/milanobormio/ milano-bormio] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/frasi-invito/ frasi invito compleanno] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/gli-amanti/ gli amanti del chiaro di luna] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/il-video/ il video del complesso studio 3] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/navigazione-laghi/ navigazione laghi] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/tavolo-da.htm tavolo da ping pong] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/affitto-vacanza/ affitto vacanza roma] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/quinny-sx.htm quinny sx] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/i-ventitre/ i ventitre giorni della citta di alba] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/acer-aspire/ acer aspire wlmi 1672] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/www-mutuionline/ www mutuionline it] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/mariani-alfredo.htm mariani alfredo e figlio] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/moto-depoca/ moto depoca] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/giochi-x.htm giochi x box] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/hp-all/ hp all in one laser] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/libri-on/ libri on line] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/finalfantasy.htm finalfantasy9] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/shiftey.htm shiftey] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/archos-mp/ archos mp3 player] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/arctic-cooling/ arctic cooling freezer 64] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/patrick-robinson/ patrick robinson] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/un-medico/ un medico in famiglia. prima serie. vol. 20] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/pps-di/ pps di auguri] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/router-adsl/ router adsl 504t] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/giustiziare/ giustiziare] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/idea-bagno/ idea bagno] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/www-athena/ www athena it] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/live-bit.htm live 24-bit] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/dead-heart.htm dead heart] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/qwr/ qwr] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/data-e.htm data e home page americana per ghost in the shell] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/colin-mcrae.htm colin mcrae rally 4] [http://behaverf.125mb.com/view/new/lucifer/ lucifer] [http://redobsession.freehostia.com/web/caradonna.htm caradonna] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/czuczor-gergely/ czuczor, gergely] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/cani-da.htm cani da caccia] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/viewsonic-monitor/ viewsonic monitor lcd] [http://edmei.125mb.com/html/rena.htm rena] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/katiuska/ katiuska] [http://curti2iag.125mb.com/description/lib/wickedweasel/ wickedweasel] [http://roaliano.125mb.com/content/view/ragazza-pompei.htm ragazza pompei] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/videocamere-samsung.htm videocamere samsung] [http://oooohhnnnooooo.freehostia.com/content/view/led-zeppelin.htm led zeppelin dale] [http://ginger-tea.freehostia.com/topic/lestate-delle/ lestate delle scimmie] [http://tomems.125mb.com/html/alfa-o/ alfa o alpha] [[Table Of Contents]]
  
 
== Content ==
 
== Content ==
Line 37: Line 37:
  
  
<u>John Rawls - [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0674017722/sr=8-2/qid=1146499104/ref=sr_1_2/104-2322222-6539953?%5Fencoding=UTF8 <i>A Theory of Justice (amazon)</i>], or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Theory_of_Justice<i>A Theory of Justice (wikipedia)</i>]</u>
+
<u>John Rawls - [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0674017722/sr=8-2/qid=1146499104/ref=sr_1_2/104-2322222-6539953?_encoding=UTF8 <i>A Theory of Justice (amazon)</i>], or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Theory_of_Justice<i>A Theory of Justice (wikipedia)</i>]</u>
  
 
Benkler's use of Rawls' work is rooted in three of Rawls' principles.   
 
Benkler's use of Rawls' work is rooted in three of Rawls' principles.   
Line 54: Line 54:
  
  
<u>Robert Nozick - [http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0465097200/qid=1146501412/sr=2-1/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_1/104-2322222-6539953?v=glance&s=books <i>Anarchy, State and Utopia (amazon)</i>] or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarchy%2C_State%2C_and_Utopia<i>Anarchy, State and Utopia (wikipedia)</i>]</u>
+
<u>Robert Nozick - [http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0465097200/qid=1146501412/sr=2-1/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_1/104-2322222-6539953?v=glance
 
 
Nozick is famous for his Entitlement Theory, which contains three principles:
 
 
 
* Transfer principle:  Property acquired freely from others who in turn acquired the property in a just way is to be considered justly acquired.
 
* Acquisition principle: Persons are entitled to property they initially acquired in a just way.
 
* Rectification principle: Rectify violations of 1 or 2 by restoring property to its rightful owners. ([http://www.missouri.edu/~philrnj/nozick.html Source])
 
 
 
Benkler’s observations and criticisms of the Entitlement Theory
 
* The theory ignores the poor
 
* Poverty explained solely as derived from a lack of responsibility
 
* Highly resistant to claims of redistribution
 
 
 
 
 
<u>Ronald Dworkin - [http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0674008103/qid=1146501395/sr=2-1/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_1/104-2322222-6539953?v=glance&s=books <i>Sovereign Virtue</i>] or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Dworkin<i>Ronald Dworkin (wikipedia)</i>]</u>
 
 
 
Dworkin's work combines luck and responsibility in an attempt to alleviate some of the shortcomings (i.e., impossibilities) of Rawls' theory.  Dworkin's work does not reject the possibility of redistribution as Nozick's does.  Basically, his framework for a just system uses an "auction plus insurance" mechanism to duplicate effect of Rawls' [quite impossible] "Veil of Innocence" using market
 
* Step 1:  <i>Auction.</i>  The model starts with an initially equitable distribution of resources (described by Dworkin as an auction in which individuals use the initially distributed resources to bid for resources in the community.)
 
* Step 2:  <i>Insurance.</i>  Because people differ in circumstances (i.e., luck), the initial distribution is supplemented with insurance.  Everyone pays into a common pool, which is then used to help those with bad luck. ([http://www.distributive-justice.com/theory/dworkin-en.htm Source])
 
 
 
Benkler’s observations and criticisms
 
* Less attractive from perspective of liberal theories focusing on personal autonomy because it ignores personal responsibility.
 
* Good for proving a metric of “justness” which can be used to optimize redistribution.
 
* Too difficult to measure the value of the insured-for issues – wealth, intelligence, health.
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
====Structure====
 
 
 
Structure refers to “causes for the inequality of an individual that are beyond his or her control, but are traceable to institutions, economic organizations, or social relationships that form a society’s transactional framework.
 
 
 
 
 
<u>Bruce Ackerman - [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0300027575/104-2322222-6539953?v=glance&n=283155 <i>Social Justice in the Liberal State (amazon)</i>] or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Justice_in_the_Liberal_State<i>Social Justice in the Liberal State (wikipedia)</i>]</u>
 
 
 
Instead of focusing solely on structural causes in inequality, Ackerman proposes reforms that layer structural solutions on top of a model including both responsibility and luck.  Ackerman recognizes that one's luck (parental wealth, genetic endowments) combine with one's structurally-limited opportunities (educational opportunities and general transactional framework in one's life) to define a sphere of possibility.  Structural reforms, according to Ackerman, must seek to resolve unluckiness-based inequities while still distinguishing between responsible parties to prevent incentivizing irresponsibility. 
 
 
 
Ackermans' proposal includes all three of these elements:  A <i>government-funded personal endowment at birth</i> that you can save or squander (and “suffer the consequential reduction in welfare.”)  The key elements:
 
* Structure:  In combination with establishing a more open transactional framework that would allow anyone to transact with anyone else (another of Ackerman's proposals), this would be a societal institution accessible to all.
 
* Luck:  The funding early in life would not equalize poor children to rich, but it would eliminate many of the worst barriers created by a childhood of poverty.
 
* Responsibility:  The fund may be irresponsibly squandered.  This means that the system will not help maintain the wealth of irresponsible parties.
 
 
 
===Commons-Based Strategies for Human Welfare and Development===
 
===Information-Embedded Goods and Tools, Information, and Knowledge===
 
===Industrial Organization of HDI-Related Information Industries===
 
===Toward Adopting Commons-Based Strategies for Development===
 
 
 
====Software====
 
 
 
====Scientific Publication====
 
 
 
===Commons-Based Research for Food and Medicines===
 
====Food Security: Commons-Based Agricultural Innovation====
 
====Access to Medicines: Commons-Based Strategies for Biomedical Research====
 
===Commons-Based Strategies for Development: Conclusion===
 
 
 
==Sources==
 
===Sources cited in the chapter===
 
===Other relevant readings===
 
==Case Studies==
 
===Supporting examples===
 
 
 
====Jamaica Project====
 
 
 
Harvard Law School's Berkman Center for Internet and Society is currently involved in a project with prisoners in Jamaica.  One its [http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/home/jamaica_project website], the following information is given:
 
 
 
"Led by Berkman Faculty Co-Director Charles Nesson, the Jamaica Project was established in 1998 and has expanded with each successive year through a series of interconnected initiatives. The Project focuses on the problems caused by globalization, exploring the thesis that networks based on communication and exchange of social and intellectual capital can help in rehabilitation of developing countries hurt by globalization."
 
 
 
I had the opportunity to interact with some of the people involved in this project.  And will share the information I gained from that session to demonstrate the fact that the internet can have a positive value for social justice.
 
 
 
The program is focused on prisons.  According to those involved, the prison situation in Jamaica is less than ideal.  There are problems with over-crowding as well as a lack of sanitation.  There is huge animosity between the guards and the prisoners.  As within any prison system, new social ordering rules are created.  Many young men are in prison, often for drug-related crimes.  It is difficult for these men to re-enter society and to get jobs, etc.
 
 
 
Why was Jamaica chosen?  After all, there are poor prison conditions everywhere.  According to Professor Charles Nesson, Jamaica was chosen for it's isolation as an island nation as well as for the fact that, even as a small nation, Jamaica has worldwide recognition.  Professor Nesson cites the proliferation of reggae music as one example of this.
 
 
 
The project focuses on helping prisoners by allowing them to gain new skills and do different things for themselves.  One early project was a radio station in the prison.  This allowed information to be easily transferred between prisoners and outsiders such as their families.  The program has also included utilizing computers to learn and create.  The program has worked with musician [http://www.jahcure.com Jah Cure] who has been developing music while in prison.
 
 
 
While this project is still in its developing stages, it shows promise for allowing the internet to make a difference in the lives of many of these young men.  It has not been able to provide a seamless integration for prisoners back into daily life, but hopes to allow the prisoners to collaborate and start businesses once released.
 
 
 
For additional information please visit the following links:
 
 
 
* [http://www.haa-jamaica.org/ Harvard Jamaica Project]
 
* [http://www.wayneandwax.org/ Wayne&Wax.org]
 
* [http://www.transom.org/guests/review/200201.review.clydon.html  Christopher Lydon's Parachute Radio]
 
 
 
====Technological Generativity====
 
 
 
[http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/zittrain.html Jonathan Zittrain's] paper, [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=847124 <i>The Generative Internet</i>] argues that the ubiquitousness, accessibility, and multi-purpose adaptability of the Internet  -- together taken as "generativity" -- are crucial characteristics of today's technical paradigm.  Without generativity, computers would become analogous to hard-wired coffee pots capable of only one specific task.  Internet would become highly application-specific and not adaptable to new uses.  With generativity, on the other hand, "[t]he developed world now finds itself with a wildly generative information technology environment, the result of taking forks in its developmental path that avoided hardware dedicated to predetermined tasks, and that eclipsed network facilities operated by a single umbrella provider responsible both for connectivity and content" ([http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=847124 Zittrain] 17).
 
 
 
Technological generativity is one dimension of Benkler's networked information economy, and one which contributes substantially to the social justice arguments for migrating away from a centralized proprietary market system.  Below are generative concepts applied to the liberal theories of justice detailed [http://www.benkler.org/wealth_of_networks/index.php/9._Justice_and_Development#Liberal_Theories_of_Justice_and_the_Networked_Information_Economy above].
 
 
 
'''Luck''' - Generativity is a concept that contemplates precisely the type of luck that Rawls' theory entails.  We cannot say today who will produce the great innovations of tomorrow.  It might be the country's biggest ISPs or software producers, or it might be a 13 year old boy.  Anyone set to the task of designing the rules of technology behind a "veil of ignorance" -- i.e., not knowing who the innovators will be -- with the goal of maximizing technological progress and subsequent social welfare, will naturally come to a design which keeps open as many doors for innovation as possible.  This is generativity.
 
 
 
'''Responsibility''' - In the social welfare context, Nozick and Dworkin both emphasize the importance of building in elements of personal responsibility to a social contract.  Without consequences for irresponsible parties, the system would incentivize irresponsibility.  According to these theorists, the more responsible one is, the better off one's situation will become.  Similar principles apply to technology.  If individuals shun the responsibility required of a generative net (security measures, identity protection, etc.), technology creators will have no choice but to migrate to less-generative but more secure platforms. 
 
 
 
'''Structure''' - Inequities embedded in social structures limit social justice in ways that overlap with restrictions caused by structurally encoded limitations on the web.  Both types of structural limitations may be avoided through systemic design choices.  Ackerman suggests that creating "a more open and egalitarian transactional framework . . . would allow anyone access to opportunities to transact with others, rather than depending on, for example, unequal access to social links as a precondition to productive social behavior" ([http://www.benkler.org/wealth_of_networks/index.php/Main_Page Benkler] 305).  The Internet itself is a perfect example of a transaction-facilitating framework in which people may communicate with each other, regardless of race, class, gender, or any other defining characteristic.  The Internet should, according to generativity principles, preserve similar "communication" frameworks on a technological level.  The packet routing structure of the Internet allows "smart" devices on the edges of the network to communicate through the "dumb" center of the net.  Both types of structural limitations prevent communication and interaction from taking place, both on a social and technical level.
 
 
 
===Counter-examples===
 
 
 
==Key Concepts==
 

Revision as of 06:55, 16 August 2007

calcio vero comprare dvd zeljko samardzic ljubavnik selezione grande fratello patr colonna sonora del film i cento passi scritti sul pensiero politico radeon 9550 il mondo di alex philips - sa178 foolproof www realmadrid com prada spr53f dvd autoradio sistemi multimediali www loskumbiakings com fat boy slim gadget salute bellezza funzionalismo la tombola long range cordless termometro wireless nardi fea casa bubble bobble 2 locandine film dvd gratis blu, cellulari promozione leslie sobri and amine pensini plazmatek cromalatina cover micheal buble spartiti sister ac manifestazione scolastica innamoratevi come me rapper nelly stagioni di francesco guccini alona cheap hosting fiorellino senza meta marco masini principessa carleton, william compleaano winnie the pooh tien an men vl-z100s sharp voyeur blog videocamera vhs sintoamplificatori 7 1 rollon webcam dagli alberghi melody of life sciopero la costanza della ragione gameboy wireless mont blanc orologio missa en fa mayor mr.snoozleberg mazda torino km0 ypsilon www 2 pac com etichette adesive laser lcd tv alta definizione w-xga stampante hp laserjet 1300 tranny sex e111 pocket pc h6340 vp d352 you ve got a friend in me ebay co uk la line-up di federal video www baci abbracci com operazione siegfried paradiso notturno valutazione camper usati pagine erotiche lettori mp3 stick ottolina crism hub usb alimentatore dj playero haute normandie mercedes 2000 project gotham racing 2 roma cartina paciotti 4us uomo francesca e nunziata auto usata lombardia mp3 1 gb radio fm giochi erotici di super eva hanghai comune avezzano musica gratis da scaricare playstation 2 www yaooh com siracusa albergo ad ogni costo w w w erosramazzotti com lettore dvd autoradio lg hd ready amstrad lettore dvd divx 3010 www bizzarre it donne di 50 anni grande fratelo 5 brittany spears nude jaime pressley triband cellulari lg hpi nitro mt2 la bottega di filosofia lady oscar - volume 1 nike oro air max silver l imbroglione impiegato ufficio acquisti (regione veneto - treviso provincia) paparazzi 2004 acer 1804wsmi elisa di componenti natasha klaus y michel brown autonoleggio venezia ragazzi perduti hoobastank mp3 cavo rca 20 mt frigo whirlpool 4170 psp giapponese sex arabe woofer attivo per auto il mio caro john conto correnti impresa koblenz volvo super polar 240 ram ddr 256mb 266mhz digitale terrestre smart prestito strasbourg cori alpini gratis grande display cordless mmc nokia dragon buble gianni barbara cx-7525 foto kodak fotocamere digitali deta estratto di mirtillo chitarra classica elettrificata frankie morello fionnula flanagan ibm mouse wheel optical mille lire hp stampanti 110 plus ati x800gto ultimate one day i ll fly away passalibro gps bluetooth kirrio ingegnere impiegata commerciale (regione lombardia - cremona provincia) philips 29pt8520 briana bancks daidegas milano-bormio frasi invito compleanno gli amanti del chiaro di luna il video del complesso studio 3 navigazione laghi tavolo da ping pong affitto vacanza roma quinny sx i ventitre giorni della citta di alba acer aspire wlmi 1672 www mutuionline it mariani alfredo e figlio moto depoca giochi x box hp all in one laser libri on line finalfantasy9 shiftey archos mp3 player arctic cooling freezer 64 patrick robinson un medico in famiglia. prima serie. vol. 20 pps di auguri router adsl 504t giustiziare idea bagno www athena it live 24-bit dead heart qwr data e home page americana per ghost in the shell colin mcrae rally 4 lucifer caradonna czuczor, gergely cani da caccia viewsonic monitor lcd rena katiuska wickedweasel ragazza pompei videocamere samsung led zeppelin dale lestate delle scimmie alfa o alpha Table Of Contents

Content

Summary of the chapter

Professor Benkler specifically contemplates the influence of burgeoning non-market common-based production on the issue of justice and development.

Current dominant market-based production lays its foundation on the economic incentive for production and innovation. It relies on the proprietary protection to create exclusive rights as the core policy for growth and development. However, the system has negative effects on the issue of distribution.

Starting from an overview of the theories of justice associated with liberalism. Professor Benkler argues that as long as we admit that poverty or plight could come from situations (bad luck) and not just a result of personal choices (responsitivity). Certain arrangements of wealth redistribution may be necessary to promote justice.

The issue of unequal distribution of wealth creates gross injustice at the international level. It is obvious for the distribution of food and medicine. Adolescents in America buy many kinds of medicines for acne and can afford it, while thousands of children in Africa and Asia die from diseases that can be cured easily by modern medicine but they cannot afford it. Furthermore, the market-based economy creates incentives for innovation to serve the needs of the rich and ignore the needs of the poor. More researches are conducted to cure minor diseases in the wealthy North rather than considering life-threatening deceases in the poor South.

Professor Benkler contends that accusing private corporations is not only useless but also unfair. Directors in such companies have fiduciary duties to maximise their shareholders’ wealth. The injustice result is the aggregate effect of the market-based production economy.

The common-based production economy provides an alternative to the market-based economy to generate innovations and productions that can satisfy the needs of the poor. Professor Benkler analyses different types of goods and provides an account about how common-based information economy may help to ameliorate the growing gap. For example, the MIT Open Courseware initiative provides students and teachers around the world with free and easy access to the knowledge generated by one of the best institutions in the world.

Food and medicine are the most urgent needs of developing countries. Current innovations in the agricultural biotechnological industry are increasingly relying on the private sector. Their innovations are protected by patent rights which prevents poor countries from using them as unaffordable. The common-based production model could also provide promising results in reversing such a trend. Efforts like PIPRA (Public Intellectual Property for Agriculture) or BIOS (Biotechnology Innovation for an Open Society) serve as examples for non-profit-driven research and overcome patent barriers created by the market-based economy. In the area of medical science, efforts have been made to increase research regarding developing countries health issues. A proposed experiment at the University of Indiana-Purdue University at Indianapolis provides simple, low-cost kits for training students in chemical synthesis to conduct experiments with a view to treating diseases in the developing countries. With enough redundancy across classrooms and institutions around the world, useful drugs might be invented to help developing countries.

The common-based production economy was made possible through the effect of the cheap communication framework provided by the Internet. Professor Benkler shows how the rich North could generate information and innovations for the poor South. However, what Internet could achieve is not only allowing more researchers to help developing countries, but also have an empowerment effect on the developing world. Professor Benkler mentioned that the insufficiency of food and drugs in many third-world nations is not only caused by the high prices but also caused by malfunctioning transportation and distribution. Bad governance has been identified by the World Bank as the major reason that cripples developing countries from development. Systemic corruption will jeopardize any efforts to help local people in these countries. The most vivid example is the GlaxoSmithKline case. In the year of 2002, Glaxo provided cheaper drugs treating patients with HIV in African countries but these drugs were resold at higher price in Europe by corrupted government officials in the African countries. Though the use of internet, information about local governments operations could be more easily observed by the people. For developing countries that have passed the threshold of having access to internet, such as China or India, the effect of empowerment of the people can be observed even under censorship. For other countries that cannot afford the basic infrastructure of having access to the Internet, the effort to create cheaper infrastructure has already been launched. MIT cooperated with a Taiwanese computer manufacturing company, Quanta, to manufacture cheap computers in order to allow “One Laptop Per Child” in developing countries. Only through empowerment of the people in the developing countries, can developing world really come up with their own way to rescue themselves out from the vicious circle. Professor Benkler raises an important question in this chapter. He asks: “ What has Wikipedia got to do with the 49 percent of the population of Congo that lacks sustainable access to improve water resources?” He answers this question by how the new common-based production information economy in the developed countries can produce more goods and innovations to benefit the developing countries. The common-based economy could also come up with programs such as the MIT-Quanta “One Child Per Laptop” initiative to allow people in the developing countries to have cheaper and easier access to knowledge and find out their own way of development. The current infrastructure of the internet, dominated by companies such as Microsoft and Intel, is itself a problem. Endless coerced upgrading practices protected by the Intellectual Property system and formidable network externality make the infrastructure of internet towards an unaffordable direction for the poor South. More efforts should be made to allow cheaper alternatives to be generated by the common-based information economy.

Overview

Liberal Theories of Justice and the Networked Information Economy

Benkler sorts liberal theories of justice into buckets, based on how they explain the sources of inequality. The three primary explanations are (1) luck, (2) responsibility, and (3) structure. The main thesis of this section is that the networked information economy offers concrete improvements over proprietary market economies along all three lines of liberal theories of justice.

Luck

Luck refers to “reasons for the poverty of an individual that are beyond his or her control, and that are part of that individual’s lot in life unaffected by his or her choices or actions.”


John Rawls - A Theory of Justice (amazon), or A Theory of Justice (wikipedia)

Benkler's use of Rawls' work is rooted in three of Rawls' principles.

  • First, Rawls starts from the foundational assumption that the poorest people are in their condition only because of dumb luck.
  • Second, Rawls is famous for his "difference principal," which proposes that society should provide those worst off with the benefits of redistribution or growth of wealth.
  • Third, Rawls uses a thought experiment called the "Veil of Innocence" to propose a mechanism to maximize justice for all members of society. Rawls proposes that principles of justice would be maximized when established from behind a theoretical “veil of innocence,” where “no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status, nor does anyone know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence, strength, and the like. I shall even assume that the parties do not know their conceptions of the good or their special psychological propensities.” Only then would parties unselfishly maximize the probability that no member of society would experience poverty or injustice.

Benkler's observations:

  • If we were to rationally distribute our resources behind the "veil of innocence," we would make rationale decisions, but would not distribute wealth exactly equally. We will trade overall productivity to help the worst cases, but we won't, and shouldn't, make the huge sacrifices in productivity necessary for a totally equal system.


Responsibility

Responsibility refers to “causes for the poverty of an individual that can be traced back to his or her actions or choices.


Robert Nozick - [http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0465097200/qid=1146501412/sr=2-1/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_1/104-2322222-6539953?v=glance