[[Table Of Contents]]
[[Table Of Contents]]
| || |
== Content ==
== Content ==
Revision as of 01:04, 17 August 2007
rifasamento il motore di ricerca immobilare gomme 1 8 rally robiie williams ascolta gratis grand funk il barbero de sevilla case in affitto h battle www anti juve com inpdap cessione quinto fireball island sexi chat inglesina carrozzina gemellare pornographie maroc astraeus toshiba a80 131 www ls university com mp3 usb 1g ambasciata polonia ucelli giuliana inps pensioni tutte le domande di sonic controller sata raid patente europea del computer seat toledo 1.6 stella beavis and butthead il dopoguerra e la crisi volano chat dw come pensi che io assicurazione san donato milanese spy collection starship ranger racconto amatoriale soluzione seconda prova telecomunicazion hombres sexys tutte le cartine della francia monica naranjo mp3 www formen ragazzo trieste download gioco pc gratis jarrett whisper modello ise mp3 creative zen nano 512 quinny freestyle avp antivirus fidelity bolzano sunlight roig, montserrat www garante it kalima club azzurro bilancia professionale data prova esami gru iv serie speciale faron adventure limana civitanova marche ristorante la staffa the dragon zyxel omni hub 10 porte d-link enimem frozen ball versine del leone del lupo e della volpe buscar el juego de super mario land borromeo the loveless www aljazeera com worms 6600 yellowout flex online com avventure di un fotografo estudiantes sexis dzaoudzi vendita memorie ram icn navman 650 palmare telefono windows largo di mendelssohn colonna sonora padrino il banco dei gelati www hardcore vitara diesel adattatore auto usb accessori palmari dvd lettore usb lungo il fiume sex sex liu lu mercatu funkee green dogs vendita armadi ventole raffreddamento 120 calendario porcone di questo anno jeans dolce gabbana donna abbigliamento vigano san martino www wear com x files stagione lcd wireless lavatrice atlantic khriz y angel benne norah jones midi blue chi mi dice midi seximages microonde con forno a incasso cde 9843r oakley dartboard guitar software uscita usb eligeme de luis fonsi ddd compilation 2004 jetflash 128 crash tea jack 0 5mt plasmon it stampante hp 1300 pelosissima camping toscana lamoureux, charles sesso tra vecchi abbigliamento fitness photosmart r707 rex fi www com latinchat hp scanjet 3800 nero.2 xd picture card 512 mb fata maria o c orange countri o gorizia tu sei maledetta kodak easyshare p880 gioco piscina negras gostosas www videopornogratis it mini hi-fi rds roulette strategy gli appuntamenti nintendo per il nuovo anno red ligth il duomo assicurazioni nono d angelo je t aime ma non plus la luna splende ricetrasmettitore cb dhl taranto campione festival sanremo 2006 tucano neonato aggiornamento fotografico per wish morris system usb 10 100 bmw 320 touring 2000 bracciale topazio argento struktura polskich banko crazy in love prodotti per depilazione principe delle maree tenda finestra volkswagen golf 2.8 golden baby panda miele accessori per nikon d100 dolci italiani pakistan international airlines kosova one shot vol 1 cisal confederazione rubinetti i don t wanna kow kit pulizia strumenti musicali villarbasse giochi del 3000 coppie over 50 grasse giancarlo santi nokia 31 zingara romantici calendari uomini vip vlaska muzika it s been awile wisin portierato testo un emozione da poco di anna oxa altoparlanti altec lansing banca popolare ancona danza macabra - terrore hard disk usb2 fotos de gay los jedes numero carta credito televisori 17 mogli puttane konica minolta dimage xg she will be loved testo ripetitore segnale video accessori audio www suzuki com kit solare sony vgn little light of love r x r a www lapecoranera it abito armani alta moda catania monzza Table Of Contents
Summary of the chapter
The emergence of the networked information economy has the potential to increase individual autonomy in three ways.
First, it increases the range of things that individuals can do for and by themselves. Information networks can lift many of the material constraints and costs of the industrial information economy. Most of the tools necessary for effective action and communication are now widely available to people in networked environments.
Second, the networked information economy provides alternatives to the proprietary sources of information/communication typical in the industrial economy. The presence of these nonproprietary alternatives decreases the extent to which individuals are being acted upon by the owners of the communications facilities. The culture of passive televiewing subjected its participants to the manipulations of the communications and broadcasting companies. Although this culture lives on, it is losing its dominance in today's information environment.
Third, the internet increases the range and diversity of information available to individuals. It does so by enabling all sources-- both mainstream and fringe-- to produce information and communicate broadly. This diversity and accessibility of information radically changes the universe of options that individuals recognize as open for them to pursue. An increase in available options creates a richer basis to form critical judgments expanded opportunities for critical reflection.
Freedom to do More for Oneself, By Oneself, and With Others
As the internet has become widespread, growing numbers of people have siezed the opportunity to increase their participation in education, entertainment, and volunteerism. The development of networked space brings society another step further away from the dark ages of Taylorism by increasing our faith that we can make something of our own volition that is valuable to society.
The section begins with examples of the ways that the internet has expanded participation in what were traditionally considered to be large, complicated projects closed to public involvement. Entertainment has shifted from the highly passive culture of television and movies-- media that control the entire experience for an inert viewer. Technological advances have enabled people to make their own media projects and distribute them over the internet. Rory Cejas' twenty-minute film The Jedi Saga is an example.
Internet gameplayers have changed the experience of computer games by serving as both players and programmers. Second Life, a game by Linden Labs, provides online gameplayers only with tools to create objects and story lines in the game. Ninety-nine percent of the objects in the game environment were created by gameplayers.
Peer production activities like Wikipedia entries, blogs, or Project Gutenberg text editing allow internet-users to contribute to academic and political discourse or, at the very least, to volunteer a few hours to help make information and ideas more accessible. These activities, trivial as each example may sound, help blur the line between production and consumption and create a radically decentralized, nonmarket forum for information exchange. When production and consumption are both cheap, people are able to make and see what they want.
The second half of the section is devoted to a discussion about how one should define "autonomy." The autonomy literature is split between theorists who define autonomy in substantive terms, and theorists who don't, believing instead that autonomous action is axiomatic. Those in the latter camp commit to a formal conception of autonomy because, as soon as autonomous action is given any substantive definition, we fail to accord people's decisions with adequate respect and risk treating them paternalistically.
Though an overly specific definition of "autonomy" could surely lead to overbearing paternalism, a formal definition of "autonomy" does too little to evaluate the degrees to which a person is more or less free, and more or less able to attain individual self-authorship. A formal definition ignores all sorts of constraints that predictably limit an individual's agency. A sufficient conception of autonomy demands that individuals have the capacity to form opinions and plans and defend them, and also to become persuaded to change them. This definition is flexible enough to accomodate any particular viewpoint or action, so long as it is the product of a free thought.
Autonomy, Property, and Commons
The networked information economy threatens the current proprerty-like regulatory structure of patents and copyrights. A shift from a property system to a commons system is likely to yield improvements in internet-user autonomy.
Exclusionary property rights are designed to serve two distinct goals. First, property rights secure resource availability. People will design and pursue their plans if they can be assured that their resources will be available to them in the future. Second, property rights assure freedom of action by creating markets for goods or services that people need to pursue their goals or execute their plans. Freedom of action and security of resources are both necessary elements for autonomous action. But exclusive property rights, and the markets that develop around them, are not the only institutions that can preserve freedom of action and availability of resources. Property-based markets use regulations and constraints to create a system in which some people have more power with regard to some things than others, thereby allowing the property-owner to sell.
Commons are an alternative form of instutional space. The relative power constraints applied to the players are different in commons spaces than they are in exclusive property rights regimes, but freedom of action and security of resource availability are nevertheless achieved. For example, I can plan to meet my friends for a picnic in a public park, not because I own the park, but because I know that the park will havew enough space for us and will be free for us to use. Freedom of action and security of resources are achieved because of the relative equality of all people who go to use the park, and because of the non-rivalrous nature of the park as a resource (that is, my picnic doesn't prevent other people from using the park in the future or even at the same time.)
Information, being non-rivalrous in nature, lends itself well to a commons system. In fact, a commons system provides more security of context for information than it does a roadway or park or other usual type of commons. Thus a more expansive commons will improve individual autonomy, while enclosure of the public domain will undermine it.
Autonomy and the Information Environment
Autonomy, Mass Media, and Nonmarket Information Producers
Sources cited in the chapter
Other relevant readings