Difference between revisions of "2. Some Basic Economics of Information Production and Innovation"

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&uarr; [[Table of Contents]]<br />
[http://ustall.org/web/guzzi-moto.htm guzzi moto modellismo] [http://kinunia.cn/hit-mania.htm hit mania dance summer 2004] [http://davte.info/library/html/giacche.htm giacche 2004] [http://nobinters.org/eva-folk.htm eva folk] [http://helmed.info/topic/tesina-gia/ tesina gia svolte] [http://helmed.info/topic/donne-a/ donne a pagamento] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/concessionari-mbk/ concessionari mbk scooter provincia mi] [http://chaba.info/thiel-cs/ thiel cs2] [http://davte.info/library/html/i-don.htm i don t wanna know di mario winans] [http://helmed.info/topic/tv-sony/ tv sony klv 20] [http://saibso.org/dubcova.htm dubcova] [http://helmed.info/topic/cubi-puzzle/ cubi puzzle] [http://saibso.org/inglesina-liberty.htm inglesina liberty] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/gruppo-musicale.htm gruppo musicale dei blue] [http://saibso.org/brava-casa.htm brava casa] [http://chaba.info/me-libere/ me libere] [http://helmed.info/topic/free-skip/ free skip] [http://nobinters.org/nasty-chat.htm nasty chat] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/indesit-silver/ indesit silver r24s] [http://chaba.info/treo-palmone/ treo palmone] [http://chaba.info/quotazioni-auto/ quotazioni auto storiche] [http://kinunia.cn/calde-notti.htm calde notti destate] [http://davte.info/library/html/www-incantesimo.htm www incantesimo rai it] [http://chaba.info/chiedere-prestito/ chiedere prestito online] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/modifica-honda.htm modifica honda bf 40] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/psicologia-di.htm psicologia di internet] [http://saibso.org/pinball-pc.htm pinball pc] [http://nobinters.org/federico-salvatore.htm federico salvatore testi] [http://nobinters.org/vigili-urbani.htm vigili urbani aquila] [http://ustall.org/web/beep.htm beep] [http://saibso.org/audio-key.htm audio key mp3 packard bell] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/oye-mi/ oye mi amor] [http://nobinters.org/non-solo.htm non solo ciclismo libri] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/caratteristiche-della/ caratteristiche della libia] [http://ustall.org/web/r-.htm r 1200 gs] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/erotic-maniac/ erotic maniac] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/jennilopez/ jennilopez] [http://davte.info/library/html/clases-de.htm clases de canto] [http://saibso.org/tafi.htm tafi] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/www-porta/ www porta portese it] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/vietsex/ vietsex] [http://saibso.org/foto-di.htm foto di adam levine] [http://saibso.org/hard-disk.htm hard disk mobile freecom] [http://chaba.info/i-classici/ i classici di revolution potrebbero essere aggiornati] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/amanti-felici/ amanti felici] [http://davte.info/library/html/montalbano-dvd.htm montalbano dvd cofanetto] [http://saibso.org/concorsi-a.htm concorsi a s l citta di milano] [http://nobinters.org/toner-laserjet.htm toner laserjet 2200] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/schede-madri.htm schede madri 462] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/soweto-string/ soweto string quartet] [http://nobinters.org/fimati-erotici.htm fimati erotici] [http://ustall.org/web/citofono.htm citofono] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/bmw-i/ bmw 540i touring] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/elodie-michal/ elodie michal] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/b-u/ b u g mafia] [http://kinunia.cn/gore-tex.htm gore tex] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/navigatore-bluethoot/ navigatore bluethoot] [http://ustall.org/web/hp-inkjet.htm hp inkjet 6620] [http://helmed.info/topic/gioco-sparatoria/ gioco sparatoria] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/nikeid-com/ nikeid com europe] [http://chaba.info/princess-diana/ princess diana crash] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/fotografie/ fotografie] [http://helmed.info/topic/calendari-lesbo/ calendari lesbo] [http://kinunia.cn/hotel-san.htm hotel san marco] [http://saibso.org/parma-fc.htm parma fc] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/voli-low/ voli low cost alghero venezia] [http://davte.info/library/html/decoder-falcon.htm decoder falcon ci 6600] [http://nobinters.org/numeri-telefonici.htm numeri telefonici di myami] [http://helmed.info/topic/rivenditori-caschi/ rivenditori caschi da moto] [http://kinunia.cn/la-croce.htm la croce gloriosa] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/guida-alla/ guida alla muscolazione] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/villa-pini/ villa pini] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/foto-montagna.htm foto montagna] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/vogliosa-di.htm vogliosa di cazzo] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/volo-los/ volo los angeles] [http://nobinters.org/azardo.htm azardo] [http://ustall.org/web/immagine-drago.htm immagine drago] [http://nobinters.org/beach-girl.htm beach girl] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/navigatori-gps/ navigatori gps palmari] [http://ustall.org/web/schlick-arnolt.htm schlick, arnolt] [http://saibso.org/carnet-di.htm carnet di ballo] [http://nobinters.org/himno-nacional.htm himno nacional del per] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/kancelarya/ kancelarya] [http://chaba.info/huntington-park/ huntington park] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/televisore-lcd.htm televisore lcd 15 e radio] [http://helmed.info/topic/stampanti-con/ stampanti con scanner lexmark] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/sony-wireless.htm sony wireless home theatre] [http://chaba.info/estetista-corsi/ estetista corsi] [http://kinunia.cn/game-boy.htm game boy advance sp artic blue] [http://nobinters.org/la-guerra.htm la guerra dei gavettoni] [http://davte.info/library/html/sentiero-solitario.htm sentiero solitario] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/s-paulu/ s paulu] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/adidas-zip/ adidas zip] [http://nobinters.org/sony-dcrhc.htm sony dcr-hc 30e] [http://saibso.org/regali-idea.htm regali idea regalo] [http://helmed.info/topic/scacchiere/ scacchiere] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/ci-vuole/ ci vuole un attimo aleandro baldi] [http://helmed.info/topic/mappa-berlino/ mappa berlino] [http://davte.info/library/html/video-de.htm video de decapitation de paul jonson] [http://helmed.info/topic/plasma-panasonic/ plasma panasonic 37] [http://chaba.info/tetra/ tetra-] [http://ustall.org/web/bagutti-midi.htm bagutti midi] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/www-bahia/ www bahia it] [http://saibso.org/laser-hp.htm laser hp stampante] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/pelletterie-in/ pelletterie in firenze] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/hard-disk/ hard disk con lettori di schede] [http://davte.info/library/html/video-esecuzioni.htm video esecuzioni in irak] [http://ustall.org/web/www-ea.htm www ea games it] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/telefono-rovigo/ telefono rovigo] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/vermilion.htm vermilion] [http://ustall.org/web/nokia-.htm nokia 3510 telefonino] [http://ustall.org/web/la-torre.htm la torre del mangia] [http://nobinters.org/salt.htm salt] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/un-gioco/ un gioco di sparatutto] [http://helmed.info/topic/udo-thundervision/ u.d.o. thundervision] [http://ustall.org/web/never-stop.htm never stop] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/lumix/ lumix 8] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/maracaibo-colombo/ maracaibo colombo] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/hp-officejet/ hp- officejet 7210] [http://saibso.org/nuovi-zombies.htm nuovi zombies sui nostri schermi] [http://nobinters.org/seca.htm seca] [http://helmed.info/topic/residenza/ residenza] [http://saibso.org/teo-mammuccari.htm teo mammuccari cd] [http://ustall.org/web/quartetto-pazzo.htm quartetto pazzo] [http://kinunia.cn/stafania-orlando.htm stafania orlando] [http://kinunia.cn/testo-my.htm testo my heart will go on] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/ventose-bagno/ ventose bagno] [http://davte.info/library/html/archivio-estrazione.htm archivio estrazione lotto] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/tastiera-e/ tastiera e mouse per apple] [http://saibso.org/maria-rosa.htm maria rosa] [http://helmed.info/topic/mare-vacanza/ mare vacanza puglia] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/aereoporto-linate.htm aereoporto linate] [http://ustall.org/web/aesop-banner.htm aesop banner maker] [http://saibso.org/designer-scaffale.htm designer scaffale] [http://helmed.info/topic/designjet-/ designjet 130 nr] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/rich-jeans.htm rich jeans] [http://ustall.org/web/microsoft-windows.htm microsoft windows xp media] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/ipod-speaker.htm ipod speaker jbl] [http://helmed.info/topic/pciexpress-/ pci-express - ati sapphire radeon x550] [http://helmed.info/topic/immagini-diddl/ immagini diddl desktop] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/www-alberghi.htm www alberghi mestre] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/sborrate-con/ sborrate con noi] [http://kinunia.cn/linch.htm linch] [http://ustall.org/web/senza-cravata.htm senza cravata] [http://kinunia.cn/foto-carolina.htm foto carolina total request live mtv] [http://davte.info/library/html/il-teschio.htm il teschio di londra] [http://ustall.org/web/inuyasha-e.htm inuyasha e kagome] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/barche-in/ barche in vetroresina] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/cineriz/ cineriz] [http://ustall.org/web/li-jon.htm li jon] [http://helmed.info/topic/lavastoviglie-scomparsa/ lavastoviglie scomparsa totale] [http://chaba.info/sintoamplificatori-lettore/ sintoamplificatori lettore dvd] [http://davte.info/library/html/jamie-pressley.htm jamie pressley] [http://kinunia.cn/publicinvasion.htm publicinvasion] [http://davte.info/library/html/semolei.htm semolei] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/la-fiamma/ la fiamma] [http://kinunia.cn/the-doctor.htm the doctor] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/rex-congelatore/ rex congelatore ci100fb] [http://kinunia.cn/attrezzatura-bar.htm attrezzatura bar] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/ariete-toast.htm ariete toast] [http://helmed.info/topic/mezzora-dei/ mezzora dei zero assoluto] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/vendita-quadri.htm vendita quadri] [http://saibso.org/altoparlanti-ipod.htm altoparlanti ipod lansing] [http://chaba.info/noi-siamo/ noi siamo angeli. vol. 02] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/softice.htm softice] [http://davte.info/library/html/carmen-di.htm carmen di pietro video] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/fotocamera-per.htm fotocamera per hp ipaq] [http://ustall.org/web/biebl-konstantin.htm biebl, konstantin] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/halmahera/ halmahera] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/porno-film/ porno film] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/il-primo/ il primo cerchio] [http://nobinters.org/interfaccia-pioneer.htm interfaccia pioneer] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/sakmann-bert.htm sakmann, bert] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/il-pilota.htm il pilota del danubio] [http://ashythro.info/library/html/video-free/ video free gay] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/heart-rata.htm heart rata monitor] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/pc-siemens/ pc siemens] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/deskstar-tk/ deskstar t7k250] [http://saibso.org/nomi-di.htm nomi di cantanti di cartoons] [http://kinunia.cn/dawnload-gioco.htm dawnload gioco gratis] [http://nobinters.org/fortuna-clip.htm fortuna clip] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/stato-patrimoniale/ stato patrimoniale] [http://chaba.info/kojiro-shout/ kojiro shout] [http://davte.info/library/html/honda-gold.htm honda gold wing] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/zubair/ zubair] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/sigla-di/ sigla di contro campo] [http://saibso.org/frajese.htm frajese] [http://ustall.org/web/ricetrasmettitori-alan.htm ricetrasmettitori alan 777] [http://psisemiya.com/images/small/pescare/ pescare] [http://ustall.org/web/egitto-sharm.htm egitto sharm vacanze] [http://amohseni.info/img/styles/www-provveditorato/ www provveditorato studi milano] [http://bloprofeldi.info/lib/anitra.htm anitra] [http://chaba.info/bengali/ bengali] [http://nobinters.org/elion.htm elion] [http://kinunia.cn/dizionario-della.htm dizionario della lingua italiana] [http://kinunia.cn/videocamere-digitali.htm videocamere digitali canon mvx300] [http://helmed.info/topic/wallpaper-gratis/ wallpaper gratis] [http://davte.info/library/html/congresso-kyoto.htm congresso kyoto 1997] [http://kinunia.cn/motori-stradali.htm motori stradali] [http://davte.info/library/html/charlotte-church.htm charlotte church. dream a dream]
&larr; [[Part One|Part One: Overview]] | [[3. Peer Production and Sharing|Chapter 3]] &rarr;
== Content ==
* [http://www.benkler.org/Benkler_Wealth_Of_Networks_Chapter_2.pdf Full text (PDF)]
* [[Sentence-sliced Text Chapter 2|Full text, sentence-sliced (wiki)]]
* [[Summary Chapter 2|Summary (wiki)]]
== Summary ==
Information is nonrivalrous (we can both use it at the same time). It is also circular in that it is both input and output to its own production -- building a table requires wood, writing a paper requires other papers. Copyright laws are justified as making information rivalrous and thus creating a market for it but are constrained so that later the result can be used in the circular production process. But how is producing information actually motivated?
Strategies of producers fall along two axes: benefit maximization (using exclusive rights to make money, using nonexclusive rights to make money, using nonexclusive rights to get non-monetary benefits) and cost minimization (using public domain information, using purchased/owned information, and using privately shared information). This results in nine production strategies. Each strategy receives different inefficiencies from copyright law, so a law's effects depend on which strategies are used. But which strategies get used depends on the law.
Which strategies are used also depends on the technology. New technology has made nonmarket strategies more practical, but incumbent firms want to protect their own models by strengthening copyright laws.
===Sources cited in the chapter===
===Other relevant readings===
==Case Studies==
===Supporting examples===
""As it turns out, repeated survey studies since 1981 have shown that in all
industrial sectors except for very few—most notably pharmaceuticals—firm
managers do not see patents as the most important way they capture the
benefits of their research and developments. They rank the advantages that
strong research and development gives them in lowering the cost or improving
the quality of manufacture, being the '''first in the market''', or developing
'''strong marketing relationships''' as more important than patents."
from page 40-41
(emphasis on their strong relevance to Open Source bazaars - [[User:Red1|Red1]])
In the case of Open Source the author gave the example of how IBM spends millions on it to gain other benefits of savings here, but the criteria above of branding and strong market gains are ever more relevant. So much so, erroneusly learning from Linux, many copycat projects are exploitatively trying to ride on ''planting the flag on the mountain'', and what they put out even though open, are more of 'market positioning' ploys. A September 2006 case is [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compiere Compiere ]been a premier OS player in the Small Medium Business sector, but adopts a  [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cathedral_and_the_Bazaar ''Cathedral''] approach instead. They soon lost the branding advantage to [http://www.adempiere.com/wiki/index.php/Media_Coverage ADempiere] been obediently true ''peer-based community'' Compiere fork which proves the author's basis in this chapter. The ''wealth of networking'' by the community members quickly obliterate whatever [https://sourceforge.net/project/stats/?group_id=176962&ugn=adempiere advantage] Compiere had prior to it going after some funding - the matador's cloth of many OSS ploys. As another more recent case of [http://opensourceculture.blogspot.com/2006/11/yes-i-know.html Redhat vs Oracle] shows, such ''ploys'' are beginning to show its slip.  
By such account, other pro-monetary projects such as MySpace, Google, YouTube may suffer the same threats as Netscape, Yahoo! and Hotmail has. [http://www.adempiere.org ADempiere] and another similar [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mambo_(CMS) OSS] fork, [http://www.joomla.org/ Joomla!] are living proofs that OSS can stay rich for all its members without funding, and in perpetual mode.
==Key Concepts==
'''Non-rival''' (36)
'''Standing-on-the-shoulders-of-giants Effect''' (37)
'''Input/Output Circularity (see Standing-on-the-shoulders-of-giants Effect)

Revision as of 05:58, 18 August 2007

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