Reference List

General and International Resources
Advertising & Marketing

Digital Signatures
Domain Names


Information Collection

Payment Technology
Privacy Policies
Privacy Statutes and Regulations
Terms of Service
Website Development

Most sites were last visited the week of April 22, 2001.


Carnegie Mellon University, Institute for eCommerce,, ECommerce Webopedia,

Oregon Innovation Center,

University of Texas at Arlington, eBusiness Alliance,


15 U.S.C. §§ 1115(b)(4), 1125(c)(4) (1994), and


Brookfield Communications, Inc. v. West Coast Entertainment Corp., 174 F.3d 1036 (9th Cir. 1999),

Cabell, Using ICANN’s UDRP,


Dorer and Forrms, Inc. v. Arel, 60 F. Supp. 2d 558 (E.D. Va. 1999),

ICANN, Business Dealings, Including with SLD Holders, ICANN Registrar Accreditation Agreement,

ICANN, Seven New TLD Proposals Accepted, ICANN New TLD Program,

ICANN, Substance of the Proposed Amendments, ICANN Melbourne Meeting Topic: Proposed Revisions to Verisign Agreements, Mar. 1, 2001,

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has links to the registrars for each ccTLD from its Root-Zone Whois Information Index,

Micropatent,, and Trademark Register at

Network Solutions, Also See "Hosting."

Network Solutions, Inc. v. Umbro Int’l Inc., 259 Va. 759, 770 (2000).

Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Welles, 78 F. Supp. 2d 1066 (S.D. Cal. 1998),

Susan E. Gindin, Researching Trademarks (1998), h.html.

Thomson & Thomson,

U.S. Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS),

Umbro Int'l, Inc. v. 3263851 Canada, Inc., 50 U.S.P.Q.2d (BNA) 1786 (Va. Cir. Ct. 1999),

United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO),

USPTO online trademark registration,


VeriSign global registry service Whois search,


WIPO, WIPO Domain Name Dispute Resolution Service for ccTLDs, WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center,

Yellow Pages,, Terms + Conditions, .

NSI, Server Agreement,, Services Agreement,

(back to TOC)


Scott Wooley, Goldmine or Glut?, Forbes Global, June 12, 2000,

ISP Liability

141 Cong. Rec. H8469-70 (1995) (statement of Rep. Cox.),

47 U.S.C. §430(c),

Blumenthal v. Drudge, 992 F. Supp. 44 (D.D.C. 1998),

Communications Decency Act (CDA) Pub. L. No. 104-104, 110 Stat. 133 (1996) (codified as amended in scattered sections of 47 U.S.C.),

Gucci America, Inc. v. Hall & Assocs., No. 00 Civ. 549 (RMB), 2001 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2627 (S.D.N.Y. Mar. 14, 2001),

Reno v. ACLU, 521 U.S. 844 (1997),

Stratton Oakmont, Inc. v. Prodigy Services Co., No. 31063/94, 1995 N.Y. Misc. LEXIS 229 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. May 24, 1995),

Telecommunications Act of 1996 [FN: Pub. L. No. 104–104, 110 Stat. 56 (1996) (codified as amended in scattered sections of 15, 18, and 47 U.S.C.),

Zeran v. AOL, 129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir. 1997),

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (1998)

17 U.S.C. §107 (1994),

17 U.S.C. §512 (Supp. V 1999),

A&M Records v. Napster, Inc., 239 F.3d 1004, 1025 (9th Cir. 2001),

A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., No. C 99-05183 MHP, 2000 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 6243 (N.D. Cal. May 5, 2000),

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998 [FN: Pub. L. No. 105-304, 112 Stat. 2860 (1998) (codified as amended in scattered sections of 17 U.S.C.)], which revised portions of the existing federal copyright law and added new provisions. Title II, §202 of the DMCA, which was incorporated into the copyright code as 17 U.S.C. §512,

Elizabeth A. McNamara et al., Online Service Provider Liability Under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 17 Comm. Law. 5, 6 (1999) abbreviated version,

John Does v. Franco Productions, No. 99 C 7885, 2000 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 8645 (N.D. Ill. June 2, 2000),

Sabbato v. Hardy, No. 2000CA00136, 2000 Ohio App. LEXIS 6154 (Ohio Ct. App. Dec. 18, 2000),

U.S. Copyright Office,

(back to TOC)



Scott Austin, Adorno & Zeder, P.A., Fifteen Things You Need to Know to Advise Your Clients About Websites,

Intellectual Property Rights

Intellectual Reserve, Inc. v. Utah lighthouse Ministry, Inc., 75 F. Supp. 2d 1290 (C.D. Utah 1999),

Limitations on Exclusive Rights: Fair use, 17 U.S.C. §107 (1994),

Sony Corp. v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 (1984),

William W. Fisher III, Intellectual Property in Cyberspace, Linking, Framing, Meta Tags, and Caching, Intellectual Property in Cyberspace,


Bill Hancock, The Exodus Network Backbone Environment and DoS/DDoS Attacks, Network Attacks: Denial of Service and Distributed Denial of Service,

Matt Curtin and Marcus J. Ranum, What Is an Internet Firewall?, Internet Firewalls: Frequently Asked Questions,

(back to TOC)


American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) and Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB), Terms and Conditions for Internet Advertising,

American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) and Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB), Standard Terms and Conditions for Internet Advertising, Mar. 19, 2001 at 6,

Bret A. Fausett, Linking Legalities, WEBTECHNIQUES (2001)


Gershwin Publ’g. Corp. v. Columbia Artists Mgt., Inc., 433 F.2d 1159, 1162 (2d. Cir. 1971).

Intellectual Reserve, Inc. v. Utah lighthouse Ministry, Inc., 75 F. Supp. 2d 1290 (C.D. Utah 1999),

Microsoft’s bCentral, .

Spam / Unsolicited Commercial E-mail

Anti-Spamming Act of 2001, H.R. 1017, 107th Cong. (2001),

Associated Press, AOL, Others Sued for Spam Blacklist, USA Today, Aug. 2, 2000,

Carl S. Kaplan, In Spam Case, Another Defeat for State Internet Laws, New York Times Cyber Law Journal, Mar. 24, 2000,

Christopher Saunders, 24/7 Media Snags Restraining Order Against MAPS, INTERNET.COM (Nov. 17, 2000),,,12_514611,00.html.

Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution, U.S. Const. art. I, §8, cl. 3,

Dan Goodin, NSI Threatens to Sue Blackhole Operator, CNET, Aug. 2, 1999,

Declan McCullagh, Spam Oozes Past Border Patrol, Wired, Feb. 23, 2001,,1283,41860,00.html.

Intel Corp. v. Hamidi, 1999 WL 450944 (Cal. Super. Apr. 28, 1999) (unpublished case),

Open Relay Behaviour-modification System (ORBS),

Paul Vixie and Nick Nicholas, How to Sue MAPS, Mail Abuse Prevention System, Nov. 2, 2000,

Real-time Blackhole List (RBL) of the Mail Abuse Prevention System (MAPS).

Search Engines and Meta Tags

15 U.S.C. §§ 1115(b)(4), 1125(c)(4) (1994), and


Brookfield Communications, Inc. v. West Coast Entertainment Corp., 174 F.3d 1036 (9th Cir. 1999),

Business Express,


eBay, Inc. v. Bidder’s Edge, Inc., 100 F. Supp. 2d 1058 (N.D. Cal. 2000),


Google, For Site Owners: Submit Your URL, Google,


How Do I Request Google to Not Crawl Parts or All of My Site?, Google Search Frequently Asked Questions,

Inegrity, Google Search Technology,

Ken Roberts Co. v., No. C99-4775-THE, 2000 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 6740 (N.D. Cal. May 10, 2000) summary,



Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Welles, 78 F. Supp. 2d 1066 (S.D. Cal. 1998),,,

Suggested Sites Help, Yahoo!,

U.S. Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS), USPTO,

Yahoo! Business Express Service Agreement,Yahoo!,

Yahoo!, How to Suggest Your Site,Yahoo!,

(back to TOC)


Anne Fitzgerald [et al], Going Digital 2000: Legal issues for e-commerce, software and the Internet, St. Leonards, Australia:Prospect Media, 2000, p. 200.

California Digital Signature Regulations,

California Government Code Section 16.5,"Digital Signatures,"

Digital Signature Tutorial, p. 1, (visited March 13, 2001),

Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, Pub. L. No. 106-229, § 106, 114 Stat. 464 (2000),

Eliminating Some Credit Card Risk for E-Business,,1467,6321_569741,00.html.

"Equifax, eHNC Join Forces to Fight Online Fraud,"

Inman, Kimberly, "Clickwraps and Electronic Signatures: Creating an Enforceable Web Site Contract,"

"Internet Merchants Bear Higher Cost of Credit Card Fraud,"

Jacobs, Patricia, "Digital Signatures prepare to wipe away ink," CNET,

Utah Digital Signature Act, enacted 1995,

Utah Digital Signature Act, Purposes and construction,

(back to TOC)


Electronic Privacy Information Center's Clipper Chip page,

Francis Litterio's Cryptography resource center,

Greg Shipley, Certificate Authorities: How Valuable Are They? TechWeb News (March 25, 1997),

Internet Law & Policy Forum, The Role Of Certification Authorities In Consumer Transactions(1997),

Internet2's collection of sample certificates,

John Palfrey, Security and the Basics of Encryption in E-Commerce (2001).

Prof. Lawrence Lessig's site for CODE AND OTHER LAWS OF CYBERSPACE

Neal Stephenson, CRYPTONOMICON,'s PKI Nutshell Tutorial,

RSA Security's cryptography resource center,

Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA)

"Electronic Signatures Act" into law (Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 2000 Senate Bill 761 reconciliation of H.B. 1714 and S.761),


Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA),

(back to TOC)


Caspi v. The Microsoft Network, 743 A.2d 851 (N.J.1999),

Farhad Manjoo, Fine Print Not Necessarily in Ink, WIRED, Apr. 6, 2001,,1367,42858,00.html.

Groff v. America Online, Inc. (AOL), 1998 WL 307001(R.I. Super. May 27, 1998),

Hotmail Corporation v. Van Money Pie, Inc., 47 U.S.P.Q.2d 1020 (N.D.Cal. 1998),

Jorge Contreras & Kenneth H. Slade, The Origin of Click-Wrap: Software Shrink-Wrap Agreements,

Kimberly M. Inman, Clickwraps And Electronic Signatures: Creating An Enforceable Web Site Contract,

ProCD v. Zeidenberg 86 F.3d 1447 (7th Cir. 1996),, Inc. v. Verio, Inc., 126 F.Supp.2d 238, (S.D.N.Y. 2000),

Software & Information Industry Association, Summary of Benefits - Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act, May 11, 2000,

Ticketmaster v., 54 U.S.P.Q.2d 1344, (C.D.Cal. 2000),

Tony Brower v. Gateway 2000, Inc., 246 A.D.2d 246, (N.Y.App. Div. 1998),

Williams v. America Online, Inc, 2001 WL 135825 (Mass. Dist. Ct.. 2001),

Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act (UCITA)

National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws,

UCITA news site,

Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act (UCITA),

(back to TOC)


Better Business Bureau's BBBOnLine Reliability Program,, or at least follow program's guidelines.

Better Business Bureau, ethical guidelines for online merchants and advertisers based on the following five core principles,

FTC', A Business Guide to the Federal Trade Commission's Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule,

TooLate.Com: The Lowdown on Late Internet Shipments, FTC Release,

Sample TOS Agreements


Student Advantage,


(back to TOC)


American Express,

Category Summary,

Collett, Stacey, New Online Payment Options Emerging,


Hal Varian, leading Internet economist, Vendor Products,



Stanford Robotics Laboratory, overview of different payment technology systems like digital cash, anonymous credit cards and electronic checks,

World Wide Web Consortium,

Worldwide E-Commerce Fraud Prevention Network,


Advisory Commission on Electronic Commerce issued its report,


Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Taxation Aspects of Electronic Commerce, Public Release of OECD Reports,

Patrick Thibodeau, New bill kicks off battle over Internet tax moratorium extension, Computerworld, February 12, 2001,,1199,NAV47_STO57636,00.html.

Quill Corp. v. North Dakota, 504 U.S. 298 (1992),

State activity in the area of Internet taxation,

(back to TOC)


Cookie Central,

Bake Your Own Internet Cookie,,

Electronic Frontier Foundation, The Web Bug FAQ,


Marcia Stepanek, Weblining, BUSINESS WEEK, Apr. 3, 2000,

Netscape, Client Side State HTTP Cookies,


(back to TOC)


Association of National Advertisers,

Business Week/Harris Poll: A Growing Threat, BUSINESS WEEK, Mar. 20, 2000,

Direct Marketing Association,


Solveig Singleton, Privacy versus the First Amendment: A Skeptical Approach, 11 FORDHAM INTELL. PROP. MEDIA & ENT. L.J. 97 (2000).

Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA)

18 U.S.C. §§ 2510-22,

18 U.S.C. §§ 2701-11,

Bohach v. City of Reno, 932 F. Supp. 1232, 1236 (D. Nev. 1996).

DoubleClick Inc. Privacy Litigation, 2001 WL 303744 (S.D.N.Y. March 29, 2001).

(ECPA II) 18 U.S.C. §§ 2701-11,

Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA), 18 U.S.C. §§ 2510-22 (ECPAI),

Intuit Inc. Privacy Litigation, 2001 WL 370081 (C.D. Cal Apr. 10, 2001).

Common Law


Arthur R. Miller, Personal Privacy in the Computer Age: The Challenge of New Technology in an Information-oriented Society, 67 MICH. L. REV. 1089 (1969).






Shibley v. Time, Inc., 341 N.E.2d 337, 339 (1975).

Susan E. Gindin, Lost and Found in Cyberspace, 34 SAN DIEGO LAW REVIEW 1153 (1997),

State Statutes

Carl S. Kaplan, Lawsuit Says Web Cookies Allow Illegal Stalking, NEW YORK TIMES, Feb. 18, 2000,

Stewart v. Yahoo! Inc. (Dallas Cty. Dist. Ct., filed February 2000) (alleging that Yahoo! and violated Texas' anti-stalking statute by using cookies to track consumers online).

Texas Company Accuses Yahoo of Privacy Violations, CNET, Jan. 26, 2000,



First Amendment Conflicts

Eugene Volokh, Freedom of Speech and Information Privacy: The Troubling Implications of a Right to Stop People From Speaking About You, 52 STAN. L. REV. 1049 (2000),

Los Angeles Police Dept. v. United Reporting Publishing Corp., 528 U.S. 32 (1999),

Reno v. Condon, 528 U.S. 141 (2000),

U.S. CONST. amend. I,

Developing Technologies

Erich Luening and Mike Ricciuti, New Security Hole Found in Windows 98, CNET, Mar. 10, 1999,,10000,0-1003-200-339806,00.html.

Janelle Brown, Napster Parasites, SALON, Feb. 9, 2001,

John Borland, Wireless Phone Tracking Plans Raise Privacy Hackles, CNET, Nov. 10, 2000,

John Schwartz, The Nexus of Privacy and Security, NEW YORK TIMES, Dec. 8, 2000,

Robert O'Harrow, Jr., Internet Firms Act to Ease Sharing of Personal Data, WASHINGTON POST, Dec. 5, 2000, at E1,

Stephanie Miles, Groups Press Agency on Pentium III, CNET, Mar. 8, 1999,,10000,0-1003-200-339677,00.html.

World Wide Web Consortium, P3P Public Overview,

Profiling Litigation

Brian McWilliams, RealNetworks Hit with Privacy Suit, INTERNET NEWS, Nov. 9, 1999,,,8161_235141,00.html.

Bruce v. Intuit (C.D. Cal., filed Mar. 3, 2000).

Rubin v. Intuit (S.D.N.Y., filed Mar. 8, 2000).

Newby v. Intuit (C.D. Cal., filed Apr. 27, 2000).

Almanza v. Intuit (Cal. Sup. Ct., filed Mar. 22, 2000).

Chance v. Avenue A, Inc., No. C00-1964C (W.D. Wash, filed Nov. 20, 2000),

Cotrone v. RealNetworks (W.D. Wash., filed Mar. 1, 2000; transferred to N.D.Ill.).

Courtney Macavinta, RealNetworks Faces Second Privacy Suit, CNET, Nov. 10, 1999,

Darby v. Pharmatrak, Inc. (California, filed Aug, 17, 2000).

Evan Hansen, Online Ad Companies Hit with Privacy Suits, CNET, Nov. 22, 2000,

Jessica Davis, Online Toy Stores Fall Short on Privacy Protection, THE INDUSTRY STANDARD, Nov. 22, 2000,

Keel v. RealNetworks (W.D. Wash., filed Nov. 10, 1999)

Lair v. RealNetworks (W.D. Wash., filed Nov. 12, 1999).

Lieschke v, RealNetworks, 2000 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 1683 (N.D. Ill., Feb. 10, 2000).

Michigan Attorney General's Office, Settlement Over Privacy Concerns Reached with eGames (Jan. 10, 2000),

Olsen v. RealNetworks (W.D. Wash., filed Nov. 12, 1999).

Rubin v. Intuit, Inc., No. 00 Civ. 1778 (S.D.N.Y., filed Mar. 8, 2000),

Scarangella v. RealNetworks (W.D. Wash, filed Nov. 17, 1999).

Suit Says Net Tracking a Violation of Privacy, BOSTON GLOBE, Aug. 18, 2000,

Supnick v., Inc. (W.D. Wash., filed on Apr. 19, 2000).

Wilens v. RealNetworks (Cal. Sup. Ct., filed Nov. 4, 1999).

Wilens v. RealNetworks (E.D. Pa., filed Nov. 10, 1999).

(back to TOC)


15 USC § 45(a),


Keith P. Enright, Privacy Audit Checklist (February 2001),

Michael Strapp, Memorandum on Privacy Audits and Privacy Policies (March 2001),

Michigan Attorney General's Office, Guide to Privacy Policies,

Software and Information Industry Association, Online Privacy: Protecting Your Business and Your Customers,

U.S. West v. Federal Communications Commission, 182 F.3d 1224 (10th Cir.1999).

Enforcement of Privacy Policies

Ellen Spertus, Spertus v.,

Federal Trade Commission, Letter to Christine Varney, Counsel for DoubleClick,

Federal Trade Commission v. Rennert (D. Nev., July 12, 2000),

Federal Trade Commission v. Rennert (D. Nev., July 12, 2000),

Federal Trade Commission v., No. 00-11341-RGS (D. Mass., filed July 21, 2000),

Federal Trade Commission v., 2000 WL 1523287 (D. Mass. Aug. 21, 2000),

In the matter of DoubleClick, Inc., (F.T.C., filed Feb. 10, 2000),

In the Matter of Geocities (F.T.C. Aug. 13, 1998),

In the Matter of Geocities, No. 9823015 (F.T.C. Aug. 13, 1998),

(back to TOC)


Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 (47 U.S.C.§ 551).

Communications Act of 1934, as amended by, Telecommunications Act of 1996 (47 U.S.C. § 222).

Electronic Funds Transfer Act (15 U.S.C. § 1693 et seq.).

Electronic Privacy Information Center, EPIC Bill Track,

Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. § 1681).

Fair Debt Collections Practices Act (15 U.S.C. § 1692).

Federal Government Access Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. § 552a).

FTC's May 2000 Privacy Report, the Commission.

Gramm Leach-Bliley Act (15 U.S.C. §§ 6801-10, 6812-27) 15 U.S.C. §§ 6801-10, 15 U.S.C. §§ 6812-27,

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (42 U.S.C. § 1301 et seq.) draft regulations at Electronic Privacy Information Center, Draft Medical Privacy Regulations Released,

Office of the New York State Attorney General, Infobeat Settlement,

Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C.§§ 3401 et seq.).

Video Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (18 U.S.C. § 2710).

Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA)

John Doe aka Aquacool_2000 v. Yahoo! (C.D. Cal, filed May 11, 2000).

McVeigh v. Cohen, 983 F. Supp. 215 (D.D.C. 1998).

Terry Jessup-Morgan v. America Online, Inc., 20 F. Supp. 2d 1105 (E.D. Mich. 1998),

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), 15 U.S.C. §§ 2510-22, 6501-06 (1999) COPPA.

Federal Trade Commission, How to Comply with the Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule,

European Union Data Directive

Council Directive 95/46, 1995,

Department of Commerce, Safe Harbor,

(back to TOC)


ABA's Internet Jurisdiction Project,

European Commission's ecommerce materials,

Full Faith and Credit clause of the United States Constitution (Art. IV. Sec. 1) available at

Hague Conference on Private International Law,

Henry H. Perritt, Jr., Jurisdiction and the Internet: Basic Anglo/American Perspectives, presentation at Internet Law and Policy Forum, Jurisdiction: Building Confidence in a Borderless Medium, Montréal, Canada, 26-27 July 1999,

ICANN's Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP),

Implementing Act of 1790, 28 U.S.C. §1738 available at

International Shoe Company v. Washington, (326 U.S. 310 (1945), available at

Jen Muehlbauer, Borderless Net, RIP?, The Standard, November 21, 2000,,1151,20331,00.html.

Kieren McCarthy, "Yahoo! Nazi tech expert backtracks," THE REGISTER (November 28, 2000),

Michael Geist, "Is There a There There? - Toward Greater Certainty for Internet Jurisdiction,"

Mink v. AAAA Dev. LLC, 190 F.3d 333 (5th Cir.1999),available at

Soma Medical Int'l v. Standard Chartered Bank, 196 F.3d 1292 (10th Cir. 1999),

Stephan Wilske & Teresa Schiller, International Jurisdiction in Cyberspace: Which States May Regulate the Internet? 50 Federal Communications Law Journal 119 (1997),

Troy Wolverton and Jeff Pelline, Yahoo to charge auction fees, ban hate materials, CNET, January 2, 2001,

Victorya Hong, 'Brussels 1' Angers EC Businesses, The Industry Standard Europe, Dec 01 2000,,1902,20531,00.html.

Virtual Jurisdiction,

Winfield Collection Ltd. v. McCauley, 105 F. Supp. 2d 746 (E.D. Mich. 2000) available at

World-Wide Volkswagen Corp. v. Woodson, 444 U.S. 286 (1980)

Zippo Manufacturing Co. v. Zippo Dot Com, Inc., 925 F. Supp. 1119 (E.D. Pa 1997) available at

Court delays ruling over Yahoo! Nazi memorabilia sales," CNN.COM.TECHNOLOGY (August 11, 2000)

Panel:Yahoo! can block access to Nazi items," USA TODAY TECH REPORT (November 6, 2000),

Court to Yahoo: Use Nazi Filter," WIRED NEWS (Nov. 20, 2000),,1283,40285,00.html.

(back to TOC)


Matthew P. Graven, Anonymous Browsing, PC Magazine January 3, 2001,,4161,2669356,00.html.,

Dispute Resolution

SPIDR's ADR in the Workplace Track 1 Committee, Guidelines For The Design Of Integrated Conflict Management Systems Within Organizations,"

List of ODR Providers

Primers and books on Online Dispute Resolution

For an excellent overview of government, consumer, industry and dispute resolution provider initiatives in establishing guidelines for conducting online dispute resolution, see Alan Wiener’s article, “Regulations and Standards for Online Dispute Resolution – A Primer for Policymakers and Stakeholders,”

For an excellent discussion of the costs, benefits and efficiencies of ODR, and a comparison of selected ODR providers, see the report “Online Dispute Resolution: An Issues Primer” prepared by the Center for Law, Commerce & Technology at the University of Washington School of Law for the National Association of Attorneys General,

Look out for the upcoming publication Online Dispute Resolution: Resolving Conflicts in Cyberspace jointly authored by Ethan Katsh and Janet Rifkin of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. For more publication information,

Useful Websites on Online Dispute Resolution

ABA Task Force on E-commerce & ADR website.

ADR Cyberweek 2001 conference “A Laboratory In Online Dispute Resolution: Access to People, Processes, and Ideas”, February 26 - March 2, 2001, sponsored by the Center for Information Technology and Dispute Resolution at the University of Massachusetts. Discussion website,

ADR Organizations on the Internet (July 2000),

Christine Hart, Online Dispute Resolution and Avoidance in Electronic Commerce,

Colin Rule, List of online resources on online dispute resolution,

Dan DeStephen and John Helie, “Online Dispute Resolution: Implications for the ADR Profession,”

Ernest M. Thiessen & Joseph P. McMahon, Beyond Win-Win in Cyberspace, 15 Ohio S. J. on Disp. Resol. 643 (2000),

Esther van den Heuvel, Online Dispute Resolution as a Solution to Cross-Border E-Disputes: An Introduction to ODR (August 2000),

Ethan Katsh, “The Online Ombuds Office: Adapting Dispute Resolution to Cyberspace”,

Ethan Katsh, Janet Rifkin, and Alan Gaitenby, “E-Commerce, E-Disputes, and E-Dispute Resolution: In the Shadow of “eBay Law,”

Federal Trade Commission (U.S.) and the Department of Commerce (U.S.) held a public workshop to explore ADR for online consumer transactions. June 2000,

James Boskey, “Useful ADR Sites on the WorldWideWeb,”, List of articles on online dispute resolution, ;

Nora Femenia, ODR And The Global Management Of Customers' Complaints: How Can ODR Techniques Be Responsive To Different Social And Cultural Environments?,paper presented at "Building Trust in the Online Environment" joint conference by OECD, HCPIL & ICC,

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Hague Conference on Private International Law (HCPIL), and International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) jointly organized a conference entitled "Building Trust in the Online Environment: Business-to-Consumer Dispute Resolution" held at the Hague, Netherlands, December 2000. The conference papers,

ODR News library page,

SPIDR Online Sector WebBoard,

Sites where dissatisfied consumers may report Internet Fraud

National Consumer Complaint Center: Site where consumers can report cases of Internet fraud and false advertising,

National Fraud Information Center / Internet Fraud Watch of the National Consumers League: A U.S. nationwide toll-free hotline for advice on telephone solicitations and how to report telemarketing fraud. The Internet Fraud Watch section provides tips and information on how to avoid fraud, protect privacy, and surf the Internet safely,

U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) site for international e-commerce disputes. Consumers from any jurisdiction may file complaints involving fraud and similar activities involving online transactions with foreign companies,

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): Information on "Internet Fraud: How to Avoid Internet Investment Scams”. (October 1998), An online complaint form is provided for online securities fraud,

Mandatory Dispute Resolution

Allied-Bruce Terminix Companies, Inc. v. Dobson, 513 U.S. 265, 115 S.Ct. 834, (1995) available,

Alternative Dispute Resolution and e-Confidence, the Global Business Dialogue’s (GBDe) working group on Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR),

Bremen v Zapata Off-Shore Co, 407 US 1 (1972),

Brower v. Gateway 2000, Inc. 246 A.D.2d 246 (1998) available,

Carnival Cruise Lines, Inc. v. Shute, 499 U.S. 585 (1991) available,

Federal Arbitration Act, 9 U.S.C

Inter-American Convention on International Commercial Arbitration (“Inter-American Convention”).

Mitsubishi Motors Corp v Solar Chrysler-Plymouth, Inc, 473 US 614, 638 (1985);

“Recognition and Enforcement of Arbitral Awards in the United States” for a discussion of the applicable law for recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards,

Scherk v. Alberto-Culver Co., 417 U.S., at 516, 94 S.Ct., at 2456,

Stephen K. Huber & E. Wendy Trachte-Huber, Top Ten Developments In Arbitration In The 1990s, 55-JAN Disp. Resol. J.24 (January, 2001).

United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (“New York Convention”).

United States – Enforceability of Foreign Arbitration Clauses,”

Vimar Seguros Y Reaseguros SA v M\V Sky Reefer, 515 U.S. 528, 115 S.Ct. 2322 (1995),

Sample Arbitration Clauses’s conditions of use,’s terms of sale,

eBay’s user agreement,

(back to TOC)


BBBOnline – Reliability Seal,

BetterWeb – BetterWeb Seal,

Clicksure – Confidence Standard for Electronic Business,

Federation of European Direct Marketing (FEDMA) – Code of Conduct on e-Commerce & Interactive Marketing,

Secure Assure – Secure Assure Faith Entrusted (S.A.F.E.) seal program,

Square Trade – Square Trade Seal Program,

TRUSTe – TRUSTe privacy seal,

Trusted Shops,

WebTrust – WebTrust Seal,

Which? Web Trader – Which? Web Trader scheme,

(back to TOC)


Argentina, Información Juríduca en Internet, Alejandro Gabriel Pérez and Pablo Andrés Palazzi, eds.,


Oz Netlaw Fact Sheet, Communications Law Centre, University of New South Wales and with Victoria University,


Internet Law News, Michael Geist, ed., BUREAU OF NATIONAL AFFAIRS, (free electronic newsletter), subscription information at


E-Revolution, Law & E-commerce, European Commission (Information Society Directorate-General),

Dr. Ecommerce, European Commission's E-commerce Unit (Information Society Directorate General),

Cyberbanking and Law, Laboratoire de Droit Economique (Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann), Centre de Recherche de Droit Privé (Université de Nancy), Institut für Rechtsinformatik (Universität des Saarlandes), at


Kanzlei Agnesstraße, Petra Steude, ed., Informationen zum Electronic Commerce,


Canada - United Kingdom Joint Statement on Global Electronic Commerce and E-Government,

Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Taxation Aspects of Electronic Commerce, Public Release of OECD Reports,


Haim Ravia,,


Cahiers, Lorenzo Cuocolo e Luca Luparia, ed.,

Diritto & Diritti, Electronic Law Review, Giulio Ottaviano edizioni,

InterLex, Commercio elettronico,

United States

Ballard, Spahr, Andrews & Ingersol, LLP,

Cyber/SecuritiesLaw, Blake Bell, ed.,

David Loundy, list of books on Internet law and policy,

Hale & Dorr, LLP, Internet Law Group Email Alerts,, E-Commerce,

Louisiana State University, Association for Information Systems,

Mark Grossman,Tech Law,

UCITA news site,

UETA resource page,

US Government E-Commerce Policy Site,

Vertex, Inc,

(back to TOC)

For more information contact:
Diane Cabell
Berkman Center for Internet & Society