Difference between revisions of "Digital Newsmedia Group Two"

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"Nothing could be more irrational than to give the people power, and to withhold from them information without which power is abused. A people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with power which knowledge gives. A popular government without popular
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The Internet and the rise of online media has fundamentally changed the way that we think about it.  [TODO: MORE INTRODUCTION]
information or the means of acquiring it is but a prologue to a farce or a tragedy, or perhaps both. -- James Madison
 
  
“When the right of every citizen to cooperate in the government of society is acknowledged, every citizen must be presumed to
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__TOC__
possess the power of discriminating between the different opinions of his contemporaries, and of appreciating the different facts from which inferences may be drawn.”  -- de Tocqueville, ''Democracy in America''
+
==Background==
 +
===Traditional Journalism: Some Notes===
 +
Rise of "investigative journalism" that epitomizes our conception didn't really happen until late
 +
History of "yellow journalism," muckracking
 +
See also "computer-assisted" journalism
  
“Our Republic and its press will rise or fall together. An able, disinterested, public-spirited press, with trained intelligence to know right and courage to do it, can preserve that public virtue without which popular government is a sham and a mockery.”  -- Joseph Pullitzer
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===A Short History of Online Participatory Journalism===
 
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* [http://oreilly.com/catalog/wemedia/book/index.csp OReilly We Media book] and more.
"“A free press can of course be good or bad, but most certainly without freedom it will never be anything but bad. … Freedom is nothing else but a chance to be better, whereas enslavement is a certainty of the worse.” -- Albert Camus
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* [http://books.google.com/books?id=k3G3-Z6F0igC&lpg=PP1&dq=%22public%20journalism%202.0%22&pg=PR7#v=onepage&q&f=false Public Journalism 2.0]
 +
* [http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/r/rosen-journalist.html NYTimes Rosen Article]
 +
* [http://nextnewsroom.com/ Next Newsroom Project]
 +
* [http://www.niemanlab.org/ Nieman Journalism Lab]
  
"“Without a free press there can be no free society … Without [] a lively sense of responsibility a free press may readily become a powerful instrument of injustice.” -- Justice Frankfurter, ''Pennekamp v. Florida'', 328 U.S. 331, 354, 365 (1946) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
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Working Definitions?  Don't want to focus too much on terminology; seems to have moved the debate into less productive territory (see below).
 +
Some blurring; increasing numbers of traditionally trained journalists participating in less traditional fora.
 +
But see story from China where identified unpopular people and found identifying information on where they live etc.
  
“I am a journalist myself and shall appeal to fellow journalists to realize their responsibility and to carry on their work with no idea other than that of upholding the truth.”  -- Mahatma Gandhi
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===Motivations?===
 +
Sense of failure by traditional media
 +
Local newspapers struggling; ensure local news available
 +
???
  
“The First Amendment … presupposes that right conclusions are more likely to be gathered out of a multitude of tongues, than through any kind of authoritative selection. To many this is, and always will be, folly; but we have staked upon it our all.-- Judge Learned Hand
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==Current Focus and Debate==
 +
* http://blogs.reuters.com/fulldisclosure/2009/01/30/twittering-away-standards-or-tweeting-the-future-of-journalism/
 +
* http://www.ojr.org/ojr/people/stverak/201003/1830/
 +
* http://www.ojr.org/ojr/people/gstorch/201002/1826/
 +
* http://www.ourblook.com/Citizen-Journalism/
 +
* http://www.ourblook.com/Future-of-Journalism/Thursday-Bram-on-Citizen-Journalism.html
 +
* http://www.cyberjournalist.net/why-twitter-matters-for-media-organisations/#more-5715 Why Twitter Matters for Media Orgs
 +
* http://www.ourblook.com/The-Media/The-Rise-of-the-Citizen-Journalism.html
  
“The theory of a free press is that the truth will emerge from free reporting and free discussion, not that it will be presented perfectly and instantly in any one account.” -- Walter Lippman
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But spectrum from "fact" to "opinion"; both traditional and new participatory media along entire range; "fact" useful for .  If less "objective," doesn't necessarily make it without value, or even without traditional analog.  Suggests may be more of a labeling issue.  Community of self-styled participatory media may develop norms / codes, either on own or import from journalism, in order to alleviate some of the problems (e.g. wikipedia).  If concerned about labeling problem, really a "passing off" issue, but people may take articles with grain of salt — passing of not an issue until people are actually confused.  Want to shift the focus a little.
  
“The publisher is not granted the privilege of independence simply to provide him with a more favored position in the community than is accorded to other citizens. He enjoys an explicitly defined independence because it is the only condition under which he can fulfill his role, which is to inform fully, fairly and comprehensively. The crux is not the publisher’s ‘freedom to print’; it is rather the citizen’s ‘right to know.’ ”  -- Arthur Hays Sulzberger, New York Times publisher
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==Breakdown and a Rough Taxonomy==
  
“The first duty of a newspaper is to be accurate. If it be accurate, it follows that it is fair.”  -- Herbert Bayard Swope, Newspaper editor
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Perhaps because its proponents most visibly identify as "journalists" and therein raise the hackles of traditional, trained journalists, much of the normative debate has focused on those sites that allow individuals to act completely as "news gatherers": identifying a story that they think is newsworthy, going out into the world and collecting facts, analyzing those facts, and writing and publishing a story.  
  
“I have witnessed admirable restraint and judgment by journalists. I have been gratified by the readiness of many of you to carefully consider sometimes withholding publication of information which could jeopardize national interests or to treat or present a story in a manner which meets the public need, yet minimizes potential damage to intelligence sources. The trick is to recognize the potential for damage and to consult on how it might be minimized. We are always ready and available on short notice to help on that.” -- William J. Casey, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
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{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="center"
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|-
 +
! width="16%" |
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! width="14%" | Idea
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! width="14%" | Newsworthy?
 +
! width="14%" | Fact Gathering
 +
! width="14%" | Analysis
 +
! width="14%" | Write
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! width="14%" | Publish
 +
|-
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| Traditional
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| rowspan="2" colspan="2" text-align="center" | Sometimes coming up with an idea and deciding whether newsworth is unnecessary, for example when reactively reporting something big that happened
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|
 +
|
 +
|
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| Newspaper / TV
 +
|-
 +
| Online Participatory
 +
|
 +
|  
 +
|
 +
| Internet
 +
|}
  
“Every bit as important as improving the credibility of the press is the need to foster greater understanding of the concept of freedom of the press. It is not … a special privilege granted to those few who own printing presses. Rather, it is a right granted to the people for their protection against the vicissitudes of government and all other sources of power and influence. … The newsman is but the surrogate for the people in a never-ending search to uncover the truth.” -- Stanford Smith
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Participatory journalism can be seen as special case of [[Crowdsourcing]], but more interesting because both sides self-consciously interact with the other.
 +
Where does the benefit of the "crowd" come in?  Analogy to law / fact; really in the analysis (mixed question of law and fact) that is key to providing something useful.
  
Interesting sites (not all citizen journalism):
+
Examples demonstrating different paradigms for shifting and sharing responsibilities for different parts of the process
 +
* Commenting on news articles; each participant can then  "re-analyze" the facts and make own conclusions
 +
* Spot.us
 +
* CNN iReport (but note what kind of
 +
* ...
  
* [http://www.mediacloud.org Media Cloud]
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See also
 
* [http://www.poynter.org/uncategorized/69328/the-11-layers-of-citizen-journalism/ Eleven Layers]
 
* [http://www.poynter.org/uncategorized/69328/the-11-layers-of-citizen-journalism/ Eleven Layers]
 
* [http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=List_of_citizen_journalism_websites Sourcewatch List of Websites]
 
* [http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=List_of_citizen_journalism_websites Sourcewatch List of Websites]
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* [http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/]
 
* [http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/]
 
* [http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/research/citmedialaw Citi Media Law]
 
* [http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/research/citmedialaw Citi Media Law]
 +
 
* [http://people-press.org/report/652/ Stats on where people get news]
 
* [http://people-press.org/report/652/ Stats on where people get news]
 +
* [http://www.mediacloud.org Media Cloud]
  
Opinions:
 
  
* [http://www.ojr.org/ojr/people/stverak/201003/1830/]
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==A Closer Look at One Box==
* [http://www.ojr.org/ojr/people/gstorch/201002/1826/]
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Why this box?  Interesting because definitely one stage where people do not have to consciously self-identify as participants in the journalism process. Just going to the airport and tweeting to complain, but can be valuable "news" for someone deciding when to leave. What are implications of leveraging information when not necessarily provided for that purpose?  Some cross-over with Crowdsourcing?
* [http://www.ourblook.com/Citizen-Journalism/Adam-Stone-on-Citizen-Journalism.html]
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Using facts gathered: how do you fact check?
* [http://www.ourblook.com/Citizen-Journalism/Derek-Clark-on-Citizen-Journalism.html]
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Limit by news topic; no real reason for anyone to lie about, e.g. lines at Boston Logan or Comcast cable being down, but be wary of exploitation by, e.g., governments without much freedom of press when aware that look to twitter stream for information. To whose benefit is it to cast doubt on integrity of information?
* [http://www.ourblook.com/Citizen-Journalism/Larry-Atkins-on-Citizen-Journalism.html]
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Relationship between journalist and source; shift?  Implications of lack of personal connection?
* [http://www.ourblook.com/Citizen-Journalism/Kirsten-Johnson-on-Citizen-Journalism.html]
 
* [http://www.ourblook.com/Citizen-Journalism/Thom-Clark-on-Citizen-Journalism.html]
 
* [http://www.ourblook.com/Citizen-Journalism/Richard-Roher-on-Citizen-Journalism.html]
 
* [http://www.ourblook.com/Future-of-Journalism/Thursday-Bram-on-Citizen-Journalism.html]
 
* [http://www.cyberjournalist.net/why-twitter-matters-for-media-organisations/#more-5715 Why Twitter Matters for Media Orgs]
 
* [http://www.ourblook.com/The-Media/The-Rise-of-the-Citizen-Journalism.html OurBlook Rise of Citizen Journalism]
 
  
Journalism More Generally:
+
http://blogs.itbusiness.ca/2010/07/police-vs-activists-in-collection-of-g20-digital-record/
  
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=k3G3-Z6F0igC&lpg=PP1&dq=%22public%20journalism%202.0%22&pg=PR7#v=onepage&q&f=false Public Journalism 2.0]
+
Sense of video / pictures as indisputable "fact," but not necessarily true either; at least for a while, allows exploitation, see ACORN scandal.
* [http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/r/rosen-journalist.html NYTimes Rosen Article]
+
 
* [http://nextnewsroom.com/ Next Newsroom Project]
+
Is the solution just for "trusted" news sources not to rely on it?  But then how can they compete (see rush to be first).
* [http://www.niemanlab.org/ Nieman Journalism Lab]
+
 
 +
==Taking a Step Back==
 +
Any real distinction?  Law of the horse where everything is the horse?
 +
 
 +
===Rush to be First===
 +
http://blog.journalistics.com/2009/process_journalism_and_it_twitter_enabler/
  
History of US Journalism
+
===News and Entertainment===
* Revolution time: newspapers as mouthpieces for partisans -- when Framers thought about "free press" was much more criticism and "opinion-y" than we currently think of it.
+
No separation of message type vs. "the 6:00 news with So-and-So"
* "Muckracker" period (1890s - 1920s), beginning of "investigative" journalism
 
* "Yellow" journalism - Sensationalizing News to up circulation
 
  
Ethics:
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===Manufacturing News===
* [http://www.ojr.org/ojr/wiki/ethics/ Suggested Online Journalism Ethics]
 
  
Law of the Horse: Importing longstanding journalism "problems" into new media.  What can we say that's relatively unique about cyber citizen journalism?
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===Place for Truth?===
* More opinions, more aggregation, more people enabled, more ability for "gotcha" journalism
+
Academia: search for truth valued even where no market; sometimes "we" ought to support something even if no market for it
* Interaction between old school / new school media
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Epistemic paralysis: can't remember where things came from because swimming in information
  
Old version
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Shared experiences?  "Balkanization of media consumption" (Sunstein?)
 +
Seal for those willing to open notes?  (Lessig)
  
#  How do you verify decentralized media (the information)?  Focusing on decentralized ''journalism'' at this point.  See also [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizen_journalism Citizen journalism]
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==Conclusion==
#*  Videos, pictures, etc… - Social Media as well
 
#*  Primary, first-hand accounts, sometimes powerful ([http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1905125,00.html Twitter in Iran]).
 
#*  But how to verify and hold accountable?
 
#**  One of the great things about decentralized media is the extent to which it can hold normal media accountable, e.g. the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killian_documents_controversy Dan Rather scandal].
 
#**  But who checks the checkers?
 
#**  Accountability is not only about ''verification'': Are there times when it is better to choose not to publish?  Norms taken on by "professional" journalists that do not but "should" apply to decentralized media as well?  (E.g. wikileaks and national security, compare general, esp. government, reaction against those who think that [http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-11578505 information wants to be free]).
 
#*  Bias within decentralized media, is it a problem?
 
#*  What criteria do people on the internet use to deem something fact vs. opinion (bring up CBS story, 60 minutes).  See also [http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.117.9104&rep=rep1&type=pdf Wikipedia as News Source].
 
#*  Contrast with journalistic ethics codes and internal regulations (see [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journalistic_ethics Journalistic Ethics Wikipedia page] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journalism_sourcing#Anonymous_sources Anonymous Sources Wikipedia entry]).
 
#*    See also [http://www.vincentmaher.com/?p=400 Citizen Journalism is dead]; posits "three deadly E's" including ethics, economics, and epistemology (although it appears the author has changed his thoughts a little); [http://www.ojr.org/ojr/stories/051006/ Grassroots Journalism: Actual Content vs. Shining Ideal].
 
#  Crowdfunding (view huffingtonpost article)
 
#* Contrasts traditional narrative that new journalism will replace old journalism.  Instead, harness the same forces that donate money to grassroots political campaigns to donate money to fund news articles requiring a lot of investigation.
 
#*    Anytime money exchanged, fear of bias
 
#*    See [http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tanja-aitamurto/the-obama-effect-in-journ_b_357711.html this article], which talks about [http://www.spot.us Spot.us].
 
#  The legal regime and the "centralized" news media have over time developed a reasonably stable set of norms / regulations to govern various policy concerns, including First Amendment, defamation, confidential sources, etc.  How well do  these ideas translate when news is coming from "amateurs"?
 
#* Should the policies be redesigned?
 
#*      See, e.g., [http://articles.latimes.com/2010/aug/05/opinion/la-ed-shield-20100805 this article], which talks about how a journalism "shield" law that's been stalled in Congress anyway is being blocked even more now because people don't want wikileaks to be able to use it as a shield.
 

Revision as of 16:23, 18 December 2010

The Internet and the rise of online media has fundamentally changed the way that we think about it. [TODO: MORE INTRODUCTION]

Background

Traditional Journalism: Some Notes

Rise of "investigative journalism" that epitomizes our conception didn't really happen until late History of "yellow journalism," muckracking See also "computer-assisted" journalism

A Short History of Online Participatory Journalism

Working Definitions? Don't want to focus too much on terminology; seems to have moved the debate into less productive territory (see below). Some blurring; increasing numbers of traditionally trained journalists participating in less traditional fora. But see story from China where identified unpopular people and found identifying information on where they live etc.

Motivations?

Sense of failure by traditional media Local newspapers struggling; ensure local news available ???

Current Focus and Debate

But spectrum from "fact" to "opinion"; both traditional and new participatory media along entire range; "fact" useful for . If less "objective," doesn't necessarily make it without value, or even without traditional analog. Suggests may be more of a labeling issue. Community of self-styled participatory media may develop norms / codes, either on own or import from journalism, in order to alleviate some of the problems (e.g. wikipedia). If concerned about labeling problem, really a "passing off" issue, but people may take articles with grain of salt — passing of not an issue until people are actually confused. Want to shift the focus a little.

Breakdown and a Rough Taxonomy

Perhaps because its proponents most visibly identify as "journalists" and therein raise the hackles of traditional, trained journalists, much of the normative debate has focused on those sites that allow individuals to act completely as "news gatherers": identifying a story that they think is newsworthy, going out into the world and collecting facts, analyzing those facts, and writing and publishing a story.

Idea Newsworthy? Fact Gathering Analysis Write Publish
Traditional Sometimes coming up with an idea and deciding whether newsworth is unnecessary, for example when reactively reporting something big that happened Newspaper / TV
Online Participatory Internet

Participatory journalism can be seen as special case of Crowdsourcing, but more interesting because both sides self-consciously interact with the other. Where does the benefit of the "crowd" come in? Analogy to law / fact; really in the analysis (mixed question of law and fact) that is key to providing something useful.

Examples demonstrating different paradigms for shifting and sharing responsibilities for different parts of the process

  • Commenting on news articles; each participant can then "re-analyze" the facts and make own conclusions
  • Spot.us
  • CNN iReport (but note what kind of
  • ...

See also


A Closer Look at One Box

Why this box? Interesting because definitely one stage where people do not have to consciously self-identify as participants in the journalism process. Just going to the airport and tweeting to complain, but can be valuable "news" for someone deciding when to leave. What are implications of leveraging information when not necessarily provided for that purpose? Some cross-over with Crowdsourcing? Using facts gathered: how do you fact check? Limit by news topic; no real reason for anyone to lie about, e.g. lines at Boston Logan or Comcast cable being down, but be wary of exploitation by, e.g., governments without much freedom of press when aware that look to twitter stream for information. To whose benefit is it to cast doubt on integrity of information? Relationship between journalist and source; shift? Implications of lack of personal connection?

http://blogs.itbusiness.ca/2010/07/police-vs-activists-in-collection-of-g20-digital-record/

Sense of video / pictures as indisputable "fact," but not necessarily true either; at least for a while, allows exploitation, see ACORN scandal.

Is the solution just for "trusted" news sources not to rely on it? But then how can they compete (see rush to be first).

Taking a Step Back

Any real distinction? Law of the horse where everything is the horse?

Rush to be First

http://blog.journalistics.com/2009/process_journalism_and_it_twitter_enabler/

News and Entertainment

No separation of message type vs. "the 6:00 news with So-and-So"

Manufacturing News

Place for Truth?

Academia: search for truth valued even where no market; sometimes "we" ought to support something even if no market for it Epistemic paralysis: can't remember where things came from because swimming in information

Shared experiences? "Balkanization of media consumption" (Sunstein?) Seal for those willing to open notes? (Lessig)

Conclusion