Keyword Index and Glossary of Core Ideas

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Glossary of Core Ideas

Air-Gapped Network

Air gapping is a security measure that isolates a secure network from unsecure networks physically, electrically and electromagnetically.

References:


Antivirus

Software which attempts to identify and delete or isolate malware. Antivirus software may use both a database containing signatures of known threats and heuristics to identify malware. Usually run as a background service to scan files and email copied to the protected system.

References:


Black Hat

A black hat is a computer hacker who works to harm others (e.g., steal identities, spread computer viruses, install bot software).

See also: White Hat

References:


Botnet

This term is derived from "robot network." Refers to networks of sometimes millions of infected machines that are remotely controlled by malicious actors. A single infected computer may be referred to as a zombie computer. The owners of the computer remotely controlled is often unaware of the infection. The owners of a botnet may use the combined network processing power and bandwidth to send SPAM, install malware and mount DDoS attacks or may rent out the botnet to other malicious actors.

References:


Casus Belli

The justification for going to war. From the Latin "casus" meaning "incident" or "event" and "belli" meaning "of war."

References:


Civilian Participation

Refers to the involvement of non-military individuals in warfare. While civilians have often supported the military in kinetic wars, in cyber warfare civilians are able to remotely participate in direct attacks against opponents. This raises complicated questions of what law applies when combatants are not uniformed military personnel.

References:

Watts

Burstein

Cornish et. al.

Combatant Status

Watts

Computer Network Attack

Watts

Cornish et. al.

Communications Privacy Law

Burstein Nye

Nojeim

Crimeware

Bauer and van Eeten 2

Cyber Terrorism

Shah

Cetron and Davies

Rollins and Wilson

Cyber Warfare

Actions by a nation-state to penetrate another nation’s computers or networks for the purposes of causing damage or disruption. (Clarke)

References:

Clarke

Cornish

Lan

Shackelford

Watts

Data Mining

Besunder

Digital Pearl Harbor

Stohl

Cetron and Davies

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)

Dumpster Diving

Geneva Conventions

Watts

Hacker

Hacktivism

Cetron and Davies

Honeypot

Intelligence Infrastructure/Information Infrastructure

Beard

Nye

Interdependencies

OECD

Santos et al

International Humanitarian Law

Watts

Internet Relay Chat (IRC)

Internet Service Providers

OECD

Lawfare

Beard

Laws of War

Watts

Beard

Nye

Malware

National Security

Cornish et. al.

Rollins and Wilson

Theohary and Rollins

Organized Crime

Cornish et. al.

Phishing

The criminally fraudulent process of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

Privacy Law

Besunder

Risk Modeling

Rue and Pfleeger

Schneidewind

Santos et al

Research & Development

Maughan

SCADA Systems

Nye

Schneidewind

Santos et al

Scareware

Script Kiddie

Shoulder Surfing

Social Engineering

Social Network

SPAM

Bellovin

State Affiliation

Watts

Cornish

Cornish et. al.

Trojan

Virtual Military Technologies

Beard Lan

Virtual Warfare

Beard

White Hat

Worm

Zero-Day Exploit

National Cybersecurity Strategy (U.S.)

Theohary and Rollins

Outreach and Collaboration

Theohary and Rollins

ENISA

E.U. Cybersecurity

ENISA