Guidelines for adding Bibliography entries

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Naming Convention for Entries

Do not use BibTeX's automatic "*" entry naming.

The naming convention we are using for entries is:

<last name>_F[M]:<year>

Where <last name> is the primary author's last name, F = first initial and M is an optional middle initial. If there are more than one reference in a year, subsequent ones are labeled with the date plus a sequence letter. (e.g, Duncan_M:2009; Duncan_M:2009A, etc.)

If two authors use <last name 1>_<last name 2>:<year> (e.g., Thomas_Martin:2006).

If more than two authors use <last name 1>_et_al:<year> (e.g., Schmitt_et_al:2004).

For institutional authors use initials (e.g., DOD:2009 = Department of Defense 2009 article)

Journal Names

Journal names should not be abbreviated in BibTeX. However, the full citation in individual references should conform to Bluebook standards, including abbreviations.

Links to Articles and References

Where possible include a url = entry pointing to a location where the reference may be found. If a second location is available use the alturl = key. Chose the location most likely to be persistent over time for the url = key. IF an SSRN entry is available use the SSRN = key.

Reference Types (with Examples)

The available types of BibTeX entries and fields are documented at

The primary article types used in the Cybersecurity Wiki are:


An article from a journal or magazine. Required fields: author, title, journal, year. Optional fields: volume, number, pages, month, note, key.

   author       = {Duncan B. Hollis},
   title        = {Why States Need an International Law For
                  Information Operations},
   journal      = {Lewis \& Clark L. Rev.},
   volume       = {11},
   year         = {2007},
   pages        = {1023},
   url          = {
   ssrn         = {},
   keywords     = {cyberwar cyberterror information operations IO
                  information warfare jus ad bellum jus in bello
                  international humanitarian law use of force
                  civilian distinction perfidy complexity
                  regulatory design international law estonia
                  denial of service attack hactivists computer
                  network attack},
   bibdate      = {2010-05-19},


A book with an explicit publisher. Required fields: author/editor, title, publisher, year. Optional fields: volume, series, address, edition, month, note, key.


A part of a book, usually untitled. May be a chapter (or section or whatever) and/or a range of pages. Required fields: author/editor, title, chapter/pages, publisher, year Optional fields: volume, series, address, edition, month, note, key

   booktitle    = {Economics of Information Security},
   editors      = [L. Jean Camp and Stephen Lewis},
   author       = {L. Jean Camp and Catherine Wolfram},
   title        = {Pricing Security: Vulnerabilities as Externalities},
   chapter      = {2},
   series       = {Advances in Information Security},
   volume       = {12},
   year         = {2004},
   pages        = {17-34},
   publisher    = {Springer US},
   keywords     = {trust security privacy e-commerce},
   ssrn         = {\_id=894966},
   url          = {\&lpg=PA17\&ots=8AOrvEojH5\&dq=Economics\%20of\%20Information\%20Security\&lr\&pg=PA17#v=onepage\&q\&f=false},
   isbn         = {978-1-4020-8089-0}, WorldCat | Amazon
   bibdate      = {2010-05-28},


An article in a conference proceedings. (The same as inproceedings.) Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year. Optional fields: editor, pages, organization, publisher, address, month, note, key.

   author       = {Michael N. Schmitt and Heather A. Harrison and
                  Thomas C. Wingfield},
   title        = {Computers and War},
   titleaddon   = {The Legal Battlespace},
   howpublished = {Online paper},
   publisher    = {Harvard University},
   organization = {Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict
   booktitle    = {Informal High-Level Expert Meeting on Current
                  Challenges to International Humanitarian Law},
   url          = {
   urldate      = {2010-05-19},
   month        = {6},
   year         = {2004},
   keywords     = {},
   bibdate      = {2010-05-19},


The complete proceedings of a conference. Required fields: title, year. Optional fields: editor, publisher, organization, address, month, note, key.


A report published by a school or other institution, usually numbered within a series. Required fields: author, title, institution, year. Optional fields: type, number, address, month, note, key.


A document having an author and title, but not formally published. Required fields: author, title, note. Optional fields: month, year, key.


For use when nothing else fits. Required fields: none. Optional fields: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note, key.

   author       = {Department of Defense Office of General Counsel},
   title        = {An Assessment of International Legal Issues in
                  Information Operations},
   howpublished = {Online paper},
   publisher    = {U.S. Government},
   url          = {
   urldate      = {2010-05-18},
   year         = {1999},
   note         = {Principal Author: Phillip A. Johnson},
   keywords     = {Law Espionage Treaties Government
                  International-Law Global Communities Agreements
                  United-Nations Legislation
                  International-Relations Law-Enforcement},
   bibdate      = {2010-05-18},