Workshop: Understanding the New Wave of Social Cooperation: A Triangulation of the Arab Revolutions, European Mobilizations and the American Occupy Movement
March 21st, 2012
Harvard University- Cambridge, MA (Boston)
Social media hashtag: #21M #occupyresearch IRC: #Berkman
This one-day workshop brought together several groups of researchers: members of the Council for European Studies (CES) European Social Movements research network who were in Boston for the Council for European Studies conference (March 22 - 24); scholars at the Berkman Center; and researchers from institutions including the Harvard Kennedy School, MIT's Comparative Media Center, Northwest University and Boston College's'Movements/media Research and Action Project (MRAP).
The workshop was hosted in the Berkman Center at Harvard University and is organized in cooperation with the Council for European Studies (CES) European Social Movements research network and the collaboration of MIT Comparative media and Occupy Research. Organization credits
Goals and Key Objectives
At this event, we undertook a historically grounded comparative approach that attempted to place these protests and their corresponding forms of social cooperation in context and sought to establish an analytical and theoretical grounding for the study of these events. We did not only investigate each individual case, but also assessed the relationships (or lack thereof) between each of the respective cases.
More specifically, the workshop analyzed the particular details associated with each national/regional case and identified and discussed any commonalities between them based on a 'triangulation' of current research and understanding on the Arab revolutions, European mobilizations and the American Occupy movement. To facilitate an interactive discussion on these topics during the event, the specific angle of each of the three planned sessions was defined around clusters of participants' interest:
- EMERGING ORGANIZATIONAL FORMS AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES
Which organizational forms were adopted by the movements in each case? What is the role of social media in shaping these emerging forms? Are there similarities among the cases? What do these cases tell us about the conditions and organizational principles of collective action?
- WHO MOBILIZED AND WITH WHICH GOALS AND STRATEGIES?
What is the movement composition (i.e, who were the actors and what social bases were involved)? In terms of the actors what is the continuity with previous mobilization waves, such as the global justice movement? What were/are the visions and strategies of change in each of the cases? Is there a common political view or strategy among all the cases? What are the significant divisions between actors within each individual case? Are there similar divisions across different cases, and to what extent are the local and national dynamics important in shaping movement configuration?
- EXPLANATORY FACTORS AND CONNECTIONS AMONG THE CASES
Why did social mobilization happen in so many countries at once? Are there similar explanatory factors and historical trajectories that explain why mobilization took place? Is it legitimate to talk about a global wave of mobilization? If so, how are these different cases connected and how might we confirm and document the connections between movements? What are the mechanisms of diffusion and translation among the cases?
To achieve the overarching goal of "triangulating" of the current research and understanding on the Arab revolutions, European mobilizations and the American Occupy movement, our specific goals were:
- Contextualize (both historically and from a socio-political perspective) the impact of digital tools in collective action by connecting the social movements studies tradition with the analysis of Internet-based phenomena, which required drawing connections among European, North American, and Arabic approaches to research and analysis.
- Map and systematically organize existing research and expertise on the current wave of social cooperation and mobilization.
- Exchange, share, and discuss current work and facilitate synergy among researchers on the topic.
Format and methodology
The workshop was intended as an exchange between researchers at the event rather than as an opportunity to disseminate information to other researchers or to the general public. To facilitate interaction among researchers, this workshop avoided conference-style presentations and instead was designed to foster dialogue among individuals working in this space. The format was mainly discussion-based around a series of questions, with the opportunity to share papers in advance of the event itself at this wiki. A maximum of 30 participants were expected at this highly-interactive event.
For each session, a moderator introduced the theme followed by very short (5 minute) warm up presentations. Then all participants were invited to discuss any and all issues pertaining to the theme. Each session finalized by someone providing a synthesis of the discussion. For each session, we assigned a note taker and like tweeting.
All workshop discussion were audio recorded for note taking purposes. Live streaming connexion were provided upon request.
Contact Mayo Fuster Morell at mayofm(at)cyber.law.harvard.edu or Amar Ashar at ashar(at)cyber.law.harvard.edu
- 9:30 am – 10:30 am EMERGING ORGANIZATIONAL FORMS AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES and 10:45 am-11:45 am CONTINUATION EMERGING ORGANIZATIONAL FORMS AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES: METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES Notes session
- 1:00 pm-2:30 pm WHO MOBILIZED AND WITH WHICH GOALS AND STRATEGIES? Notes session
- 2:45 pm-4:15 pm EXPLANATORY FACTORS AND CONNECTIONS AMONG THE CASES Notes session
- 4:15 - 5:00 pm Final reflections and next steps: Theoretical Take-Aways and Ways to Rethink Research Notes takes final session
- Slides presentation Mayo Fuster Morell: Emerging organizational forms and digital technologies: Spanish State case: “Indignated”/15M mobilization
Audio recording of the workshop could be provided upon request.
Map of case/participant
USA Occupy movement (general): Beth Coleman, Maite Tapia, E. Colin Ruggero, Marcos Ancelovici, William A. (Bill) Gamson, Ofer Sharone, Pablo Rey, Dalida María Benfield, Nicole Doerr, Tim McCarthy, Martha Fuentes-Bautista
- Boston: Sasha Costanza-Chock, Pablo Rey, Nicole Doerr, Jeffrey Juris, Jason Pramas, Sandra Ray, Robert J. Wengronowitz, Gabriel Schaffzin
- Pittburg: Alice Mattoni
- Philadelphia: E. Colin Ruggero
Canada: Montreal: Marcos Ancelovici
Arab Spring (general): Rob Faris, Bruce Etling, Alicia Solow-Niederman, William A. (Bill) Gamson
- Tunisia: Zack Brisson
- Egypt: Lina Attalah, Zeynep Tufekci, Nagla Rizk, Alicia Solow-Niederman, Zack Brisson, Dalida María Benfield
South African Movements: Nicole Doerr
Israeli Summer: William A. (Bill) Gamson
European dimension: Cristina María Flesher Fominaya, Francesca Vassallo, Nicole Doerr, Alexander Trechsel
- Spain: Mayo Fuster Morell, Pablo Rey, Cristina María Flesher Fominaya, Marcos Ancelovici
- Germany: Nicole Doerr, Maite Tapia
- Greece: Maria Kousis, Sandra Ray
- Italy: Alice Mattoni
- UK: Maite Tapia
- Ireland: Laurence Cox France : Marcos Ancelovici, Francesca Vassallo
- Poland: Elzbieta Cizewska
- France: Marcos Ancelovici
- Russia: Rob Faris, Bruce Etling
- Venezuela: Martha Fuentes-Bautista
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Tufekci, Zeynep N/A; publication forthcoming The New Media Ecology and the Dynamics of Collective Action and Repression Under Autocracies Draft provided to Berkman Center team; publication forthcoming in Journal of Communication N/A; draft provided to Berkman Center team; please see Berkman webcast 'From Tehran to Tahrir: Social Media and Dynamics of Collective Action under Authoritarian Regimes,' available at http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/events/luncheon/2011/09/tufekci
Tufekci, Zeynep (2011) Video presentation http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/zeynep & http://technosociology.org/ Keywords/themes: Collective action and technology Focus cases: Arab Spring (Egypt) Related work: Video presentation: From Tehran to Tahrir: Social Media and Dynamics of Collective Action under Authoritarian Regimes http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/events/luncheon/2011/09/tufekci
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BLOG POSTS ARAB CASES:
Carvin, Andy 2011 Online Reports Detail Chaos, Deaths in Tunisia; Add Yours NPR.org Jan 13 http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/01/13/132888992/tunisia-protests-social-media
Eltahawy, Mona 2010 Facebook, Youtube, and Twitter are The New Tools of Protest in the Arab World Washington Post, August 7 2010 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/08/06/AR2010080605094.html
Gallagher, Ian 2011 Egyptian police use Facebook and Twitter to track down protesters' names before 'rounding them up' Daily Mail London 2011 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1354096/Egypt-protests-Police-use-Facebook-Twitter-track-protesters.html
Greenberg, Andy 2011 As Egyptians Reconnect, Their Government Will Be Watching Forbes.com 2011 http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2011/02/04/as-egyptians-reconnect-their-government-will-be-watching/
Hirschkind, Charles 2011 The Road to Tahrir Social Science Research Council http://blogs.ssrc.org/tif/2011/02/09/the-road-to-tahrir/
Levinson, Charles and Margaret Croker 2011 The Secret Rally That Sparked an Uprising Wall Street Journal Feb 2011 http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704132204576135882356532702.html
Masoud, Tarek 2011 An Exit Plan for Mubarak New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/04/opinion/04masoud.html
Masoud, Tarek 2011 U.S. must back democracy in Egypt regardless Los Angeles Times http://articles.latimes.com/2011/feb/09/opinion/la-oe-masoud-egypt-20110209
May, Michelle 2011 How the Egyptian Revolution Inspired Protests in Spain PBS Media Shift: Social Networking http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/2011/06/how-the-egyptian-revolution-inspired-protests-in-spain161.html
Mccormick, Ty 2011 The Road to Tahrir (Foreign Policy) Foreign Policy August 18 2011 http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/08/18/the_road_to_tahrir
Mostak, Todd 2011 Tarek Masoud discusses the dynamics of Egypt's Revolution Harvard University Center for Middle Eastern Studies http://cmes.hmdc.harvard.edu/node/2427
N/A; Gulf Stream Blog 2011 Tunisia's Wikileaks Revolution? Harvard Kennedy School Belfer Center Gulfstream: Analysis from the Dubai Initative http://middleeastinthenews.wordpress.com/2011/01/15/tunisias-wikileaks-revolution/
N/A; Gulf Stream Blog 2011 When the People Rise Up: Egypt's Massive Protests and Their Unpredictable Outcomes Harvard Kennedy School Belfer Center Gulfstream: Analysis from the Dubai Initative http://middleeastinthenews.wordpress.com/2011/01/25/when-the-people-rise-up-egyptian-massive-protests-and-the-unpredictable-outcomes/
N/A; Gulf Stream Blog 2011 When the People Rise Up: When the People Rise Up: Lessons from Tunisia Harvard Kennedy School Belfer Center Gulfstream: Analysis from the Dubai Initative http://middleeastinthenews.wordpress.com/2011/01/25/when-the-people-rise-up-lessons-from-tunisia/
Fuster Morell, M (2011) Video presentation: The Spanish Revolution & the Internet: From free culture to meta-politics http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/events/luncheon/2011/11/morell
Fuster Morell, M. & Subirats, J. (2012). Més enllà d'Internet com a eina "martell” - eina de la vella política: Cap un nou Policy Making?. Els casos del Moviment de Cultura Lliure i pel Procomú Digital i el 15M a Catalunya (Beyond the Internet as a tool "hammer" - tool of the old politics: Towards a New Policy Making?. Cases the Free Culture Movement and the digital commons and 15M in Catalonia). Research report. Institute de Govern i Politiques Publiques (UAB) per l'Escola d'Administracio Publica de Catalunya. (139 pages)
Postill, John. n.d. “Democracy in an age of viral reality,” unpublished manuscript submitted to special edition of Ethnography “Media Ethnography and Public Sphere Engagement,” edited by Debra Vidali and Thomas Tufte.
Taibo, Carlos. 2011. El 15-M en sesenta preguntas. Madrid: Los libros de la Catarata.
Toret, Javier (2011) Una mirada tecnopolítica sobre los primeros días del #15M .http://civilsc.net/node/14
Jornadas Seminario de “Comunicación y Sociedad Civil” de la UOC-IN3: http://civilsc.net/
Purmar, Victor (2012) Los indignados cumplen un año. El éxito tangible del 15M http://www.unitedexplanations.org/2012/03/21/los-indignados-cumplen-un-ano-el-exito-tangible-del-15m/
Occupy Wall Street
American Ethnologist's (AE) May 2012 issue (Volume 39, Issue 2) features three open-access articles on the Occupy movements (by Jeffrey Juris, Maple Razsa/Andrej Kurnik, and David Nugent). ***Photos, abstracts, and direct links to the articles are available on AE's website: http://www.americanethnologist.org Click on the Occupy article titles and you will be taken to the abstracts (and accompanying photos), and at the end of the abstracts you will find live open access links to the full article PDFs in the Wiley-Online Library. 1) Maple Razsa and Andrej Kurnik, "The Occupy Movement in Žižek’s hometown: Direct democracy and a politics of becoming". 2) Jeffrey S. Juris, "Reflections on #Occupy Everywhere: Social media, public space, and emerging logics of aggregation". 3) David Nugent, "Commentary: Democracy, temporalities of capitalism, and dilemmas of inclusion in Occupy movements"
Adbusters call to occupy wall street: www.adbusters.org/blogs/adbusters-blog/occupywallstreet.html (accessed October 24, 2011).
Costanza-Chock, Sasha (2012) Video presentation Media Culture in the Occupy Movement: http://vimeo.com/groups/occupyvideo/videos/37833652
Collins, Joan. 2012. "Theorizing Wisconsin's 2011 Protests." American Ethnologist 39(1): 1-15.
Collins, Randall. 2001. “Social movements and the focus of emotional attention.” In Passionate Politics, edited by Jeff Goodwin, James M. Jasper and Francesca Polletta, 27–44. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Hector R. Cordero-Guzman, "Main Stream Support for a Mainstream Movement, The 99% Movement Comes From and Looks Like the 99%, Profile of web traffic taken from occupywallstreet.org," October 19, 2011, http://occupywallst.org (accessed January 4, 2011).
Graeber, David. 2011. "On Playing By the Rules—The Strange Success of #OccupyWallStreet,"http://www.nakedcapitalism.com (accessed January 4, 2012).
Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negro. 2011. "The Fight for 'Real Democracy' at the Heart of Occupy Wall Street." - (October 11), www.foreignaffairs.com (accessed January 5, 2012).
Milan, Stefania. 2011. “Cloud protesting.” Blog posted on October 18, 2011. http://stefi.engagetv.com/node/103, accessed November 11, 2011.
Gamson, Bill. (2012) Cultural Outcomes of the Occupy Movement. December 30, 2011 [with changes added: January 2, 2012]
Rinke, Einke M. and Maria Röder. 2011. “Media ecologies, communication culture, and temporal-spatial unfolding.” International Journal of Communication 5: 1273-1285.
Costanza-Chock, Sasha 2010 [Dissertation] Se Ve, Se Siente: Transmedia Mobilization in the Los Angeles Immigrant Rights Movement USC Annenberg School of Communication 2010 Completed Dissertions http://annenberg.usc.edu/Research/Student/Dissertations/Completed10/Costanza-ChockS.aspx
Schradie, Jen. 2011. "Why Tents (Still) Matter for the Occupy Movement," www.commondreams.org (January 4, 2012).
Suresh, Fernando Occupy Vancouver Organizer on Dec 27, 2011Occupy My Soul by http://thenextedge.org/2011/12/occupy-my-soul/
Ruggero, E, Colin (2011). "Spirit of ’76: Occupy Philadelphia, Voicelessness, and the Challenge of Growing the Occupy Wall Street Movement" Deliberately Considered, November 2011. Blog post: 
Gamson, Bill. (2012) Boston College Cultural Outcomes of the Occupy Movement. December 30, 2011 [with changes added: January 2, 2012]
Blogs on OWS:
Meyer David's Blog: http://politicsoutdoors.com/tag/occupy/ and http://politicsoutdoors.com/tag/occupy-wall-street/;
The Center for the Study of Social Movements at the University of Notre Dame <http://cssm.nd.edu/>: http://mobilizingideas.wordpress.com/tag/occupy-movement/;
Foreign Affairs articles on OWS: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/node/133733.
By John Kelly, Vladimir Barash, Karina Alexanyan, Bruce Etling, Robert Faris, Urs Gasser, and John Palfrey “Mapping Russian Twitter” <http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/publications/2012/mapping_russian_twitter>
Comparison of several cases
Ancelovici, Marcos (2012) “Le mouvement Occupy et la question des inégalités: Ce que le slogan ‘Nous sommes les 99 %’ dit et ne dit pas.” In F. Dupuis-Déri, ed. Par dessus le marché! Rélexions critiques sur le capitalisme. Montreal: Écosociété. 
Rey, Pablo (2011) Gallery of different twitter-newspaper visualizations. http://numeroteca.org/cat/frontpage-newspaper/
Rey, Pablo (2011) Post: Analyzing newspapers’ front pages to interpret the Mainstream Media ecology. Researching the #15M, #Occupy movement and the Arab Spring. Interested in the relationship between Mainstream Media and social Media(Twitter): http://civic.mit.edu/blog/pablo/analyzing-newspapers-front-pages
Gamson, William A. (2012) Arab Spring, Israeli Summer, and the Process of Cognitive Liberation. Swiss Political Science Review. Special issue: http://dmmsclick.wiley.com/view.asp?m=0jcva5g0090vlet42smd&u=19087420&f=h
USA - SPAIN
Fuster Morell, M (2012) Blog post Report on OWS Forum on the commons: http://www.onlinecreation.info/?p=492
Aday, Sean, Harry Farrell, Marc Lynch, and John Sides 2010 Special Report: Advancing New Media Research United States Institute of Peace http://www.usip.org/publications/advancing-new-media-research
Aday, Sean, Harry Farrell, Marc Lynch, John Sides, John Kelly, & Ethan Zuckerman 2010 Blogs and Bullets: New Media in Contentious Politics United States Institute of Peace http://www.usip.org/publications/blogs-and-bullets-new-media-in-contentious-politics
Bajpai, Kartikeya and Anuj Jaiswal 2011 A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference--Lisbon, Portugal, May 2011 www.iscramlive.org/ISCRAM2011/proceedings/papers/119.pdf
Benkler, Yochai 2006 (hardcover publication) The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (see especially Chapter 7, "Political Freedom Part 2: Emergence of the Networked Public Sphere" Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial Sharealike License http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/wealth_of_networks/Main_Page#Reviews_and_Blogs
Castells, Manuel 2009 Communication Power Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press Book reviews are available at: http://mcs.sagepub.com/content/32/6/1043.full.pdf+html?rss=1 (published in the journal Media Culture Society) or http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10584609.2010.517097 (published in the journal Political Communication)
Couldry, Nick, James Curran (eds.); W. Lance Bennett (author) 2003 Chapter 2: New Media Power: The Internet and Global Activism Contesting media power: alternative media in a networked world (book) http://depts.washington.edu/ccce/assets/documents/pdf/newmediapower.pdf
della Porta, Donatella Sidney Tarrow (eds). (2005) Transnational Protest and Global Activism, New York, Rowman and Littlefield.
della Porta, Donatella (ed.), 2009. Democracy in Social Movements, Houndsmill, Palgrave.
Diamond, Larry 2010 Liberation Technology Journal of Democracy 21(3):69-83 http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_democracy/v021/21.3.diamond.html Earle, Lucy 2011 Literature Review on the Dynamics of Social Movements in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States Emerging Issues Research Service of the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC) www.gsdrc.org/docs/open/EIRS13.pdf
Edmond, Chris 2011 Information Manipulation, Coordination, and Regime Change The National Bureau of Economic Research http://www.nber.org/papers/w17395.pdf
Goldstone, Jack 2011 Understanding the Revolutions of 2011 Foreign Affairs http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67694/jack-a-goldstone/understanding-the-revolutions-of-2011
Goldstone, Jack Ted Robert Gurr and Farrokh Moshiri, eds. 1991 [Book] Revolutions of the Late Twentieth Century Boulder: Westview Press, 1991 No eBook available
González-Bailón, "Sandra , Javier Borge-Holthoefer, Alejandro Rivero & Yamir Moreno" 2011 The Dynamics of Protest Recruitment through an Online Network Scientific Reports 1, Article number: 197, December 2011 http://www.nature.com/srep/2011/111215/srep00197/full/srep00197.html
Huntington, Samuel P. 1991 [Book] The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991 No eBook available
McAdam, D., Sidney Tarrow and Charles Tilly 2001 Dynamics of Contention New York, Cambridge University Press, 2001 http://site.ebrary.com.library.aucegypt.edu:2048/lib/aucairo/docDetail.action?docID=10005733
Meier, Patrick 2011 Chapter 2: From Evidence to Model in Do "Liberation Technologies" Change the Balance of Power Between Repressive Regimes and Civil Society? DRAFT DRAFT of Stanford University thesis http://irevolution.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/meier-dissertation-final.pdf
Mourtada, R. and Fadi Salem (2011) Produced by DSG’s Governance and Innovation Program and co-authored by Racha Mourtada and Fadi Salem 2011 Facebook Usage: Factors and Analysis Dubai School of Government, Arab Social Media Report, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Jan. 2011 http://www.dsg.ae/NEWSANDEVENTS/UpcomingEvents/ASMRHome.aspx
Mourtada, R. and Fadi Salem Produced by DSG’s Governance and Innovation Program and co-authored by Racha Mourtada and Fadi Salem 2011 Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter Dubai School of Government, Arab Social Media Report, Vol. 1, Issue 2, May 2011 http://www.dsg.ae/NEWSANDEVENTS/UpcomingEvents/ASMROverview2.aspx
Neumayer, Christina and Celina Raffl 2008 Facebook for Global Protest: The Potential and Limits of Social Software for Grassroots Activism Prato CIRN 2008 Community Infomatics Conference: ICTs for Social Inclusion: What is the Reality? Refereed Paper http://pep-forums.990086.n3.nabble.com/file/n2539001/2008-Neumayer-Raffl-Facebook_protest_FARC.pdf
Rhue, Lauren, Arun Sundararajan 2011 Digital Access, Political Networks and the Diffusion of Democracy SSRN, NYU Working Paper No. CEDER-11-03 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1892669
Rinke, Eike M. and Maria Röder 2011 Media Ecologies, Communication Culture, and Temporal-Spatial Unfolding: Three Components in a Communication Model of the Egyptian Regime Change International Journal of Communication http://mkw.uni-mannheim.de/prof_dr_hartmut_wessler/eike_rinke/rinke_roeder/rinke_roeder.pdf
Robert Gurr, Ted 1970 Why Men Rebel Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970 No eBook available
Ruth Kricheli, Yair Livne, and Beatriz Magaloni 2011 Taking to the Streets: Theory and Evidence on Protests under Authoritarianism Stanford University's Center on Development, Democracy, and the Rule of Law (CDDRL), Program on Poverty and Governance Project http://cddrl.stanford.edu/publications/taking_to_the_streets_theory_and_evidence_on_protests_under_authoritarianism/
Senger, Dustin (with Dr. Cynthia Suopis) 2010 Can Social Media Spread Democracy? A Review of Literature dustinsenger.com www.dustinsenger.com/publications/report/Social_Media_Democracy.pdf
Shehata, Dina 2011 The Fall of the Pharaoh Foreign Affairs http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67687/dina-shehata/the-fall-of-the-pharaoh
Shirky, Clay 2008 Here comes everybody: the power of organizing without organizations New York, Penguin, 2008 http://books.google.com/books/about/Here_comes_everybody.html?id=mafZyckH_bAC
Spier, Shaked 2011 CollectiveAction 2.0: The Impact of ICT-Based Social Media on Collective Action – Difference in Degree or Difference in Kind? Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/master/spier-shaked-2011-08-15/PDF/spier.pdf
Zimbra, A. Abbasi, and H. Chen 2010 A Cyber-archaeology Approach to Social Movement Research: Framework and Case Study Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2010.01531.x/abstract
Blog posts theory:
Esfandiari, Golnaz 2010 The Twitter Devolution Foreign Policy June 7 2010 http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/06/07/the_twitter_revolution_that_wasnt
Gladwell, Malcolm and Clay Shirky 2011 From Innovation to Revolution: Do Social Media Make Protests Possible? Foreign Affairs http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67325/malcolm-gladwell-and-clay-shirky/from-innovation-to-revolution
Shirky, Clay 2011 The Political Power of Social Media: Technology, the Public Sphere, and Political Change Foreign Affairs http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67038/clay-shirky/the-political-power-of-social-media
Bauwens, Michel 'Occupy' as a business model: The emerging open-source civilisation. The Occupy Wall Street movement is a model for a new economic paradigm, in which value is first created by communities. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/03/2012361233474499.html
Observatorio Metropolitano (Octubre 2011). Crisis y revolucion en Europa. Traficantes de suenyos: Madrid. (Spanish) http://traficantes.net/index.php/editorial/catalogo/otras/Crisis-y-revolucion-en-Europa This analysis by Observatorio Metropolitano (October 2011) links the social mobilizaions from northern Africa and Europe.
Occupy research resources:
Chinese Government Reaction to OWS by newmediadev2011 http://newmediadev2011.wikischolars.columbia.edu/Chinese+Government+Reaction+to+OWS